Tag Archives: Symptoms

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

The prostate cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland which is the part of male reproductive system. Prostate cancer symptoms might or might not manifest in a man suffering from this condition. Being a slow developing type of cancer, some men who have the disease might not even know that they have it.

Prostate cancer symptoms are not evident in its early stage. Screening for prostate cancer is relatively simple to do, with an annual prostate examination and PSA test . Most patients with prostate cancer will be identified and with a relatively high chance of cure. Screening for diseases is a fact of modern medicine. For prostate cancer, the issue is complex, as the overall benefit to patients is far from clear.

Screening means testing for cancer before you have any symptoms. A screening test can often help find cancer at an early stage. Prostate cancer symptoms are the key to determining if one has a possibility of developing prostate cancer. With early self-diagnosis, one can make a detour away from the deadly route of prostate cancer. Urinary difficulties and incontinence are characteristic of early stage prostate cancer symptoms. Men often experience frequent urination, although the amount of urine passed may be quite small. Urinary incontinence often follows childbirth or menopause. Urine or prostatic fluid cytology may reveal unusual looking cells. Also keep in mind that experts report that PSA tests are not reliable and they are looking for better ways to diagnose prostate cancer. Urine or prostatic fluid cytology may reveal unusual cells.

Another test usually used when prostate cancer symptoms are present is a digital rectal exam (DRE) performed by the doctor, proctologist or oncologist. Blood in the urine is normally a symptom of something other than prostate cancer.

However, in people who do have prostate cancer the presence of blood in the urine may be an indicator that the condition is advanced and has spread from the prostate and into the bladder or urethra. Blood tests will usually confirm diagnosis. If left untreated the disease can get serious and lead to kidney, liver, eye, and brain damage. Pain in the bladder or frequent urge for urinating are other symptoms which might indicate bladder cancer. However, none of these symptoms can be conclusively related to bladder cancer. Pain and stiffness in the lower back, hips, upper thighs and the pelvic area can be symptoms of prostate cancer that has already spread. If these prostate cancer symptoms appear, a visit to the doctor is most imperative.

Scientists are just beginning to study how diet and other environmental factors may or may not affect prostate cancer risk. Scientists still do not know the exact cause behind prostate cancer. No one knows why some people suffer with prostate cancer while others do not.

Lung Cancer Causes, Symptoms and Treatment for Lung Cancer

What is a Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the lungs. Cancer is a disease where cancerous cells grow out of control, taking over normal cells and organs in the body.

Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer in both men and women.An estimated 173,700 new cases of lung cancer and an estimated 160,440 deaths from lung cancer will occur in the United States during 2004.

Causes of Lung Cancer
Smoking and Secondhand Smoke
Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. In fact, smoking tobacco is the major risk factor for lung cancer. In the United States, about 90% of lung cancer deaths in men and almost 80% of lung cancer deaths in women are due to smoking.

Some rare types of lung cancer are not related to smoking. Other causes include exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as asbestos, uranium, chromium and nickel. These have all been linked to lung cancer but are very rare. Contact your local environmental health officer if you’re concerned.

Symptoms of Lung Cancer
People often decide to visit the doctor only after they have been bothered by certain complaints over a period of time. Individuals who have lung cancer frequently experience symptoms such as the following:

Up to one-fourth of all people with lung cancer may have no symptoms when the cancer is diagnosed.The symptoms are due to direct effects of the primary tumor, to effects of metastatic tumors in other parts of the body, or to disturbances of hormones, blood, or other systems caused by the cancer.

Less common symptoms can include: swelling of the face or neck, pain under your ribs (right hand side), a hoarse voice, and trouble swallowing.

Coughing up blood (hemoptysis) occurs in a significant number of people who have lung cancer. Any amount of coughed-up blood should cause alarm.

Treatment of Lung Cancer
An individual then has a better idea of the value of different forms of therapy. Other factors that are taken into account include the person’s general health, medical problems that may affect treatment (such as chemotherapy), and tumor characteristics.

In some cases you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort (palliative) care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing, such as pain.

Once lung cancer is detected, a treatment plan is developed based on the patient’s physical health, whether the lung cancer is small cell or non-small cell and how extensively the cancer has spread. (See “Stages of Lung Cancer.”) Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of two or more of these therapies.

Medical Treatment
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

Chemotherapy and radiation may lead to a cure in a small number of patients. These therapies result in shrinking of the tumor and are known to prolong life for extended periods in most patients.

Chemotherapy and radiation are very effective at relieving symptoms.

After treatment
Follow-up care helps you and your health care team monitor your progress and your recovery from treatment. At first, your follow-up care may be managed by one of the specialists from your health care team. Later on it may be managed by your family doctor. The schedule of follow-up visits is different for each person. You might see your doctor more often in the first year after treatment, and less often after that.

Stomach Cancer, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Stomach cancer is common throughout the world and affects all races, it is more common in men than women, and has its peak age range between 40 and 60 years old. Stomach cancer mortality is higher in Japan and Chile, presumably because of the different diets in those countries where they are less dependent on red meat.


Over the last 25 years the incidence of stomach cancer in the western world has decreased by 50% and the resulting death rate is less than a third of what it used to be but in less developed countries it is still a major cause of death, probably because in these countries by the time the disease is diagnosed (usually by means of a Barium meal) the stomach cancer is at a very advanced stage.


TYPES OF STOMACH CANCER

There are several different types of stomach cancer, some of which are very rare. The most common types of stomach cancer start in the glandular cells of the stomach lining (adenocarcinomas), this is where stomach acid and digestive enzymes are made, and where most stomach cancers start. When the stomach cancer becomes more advanced, it can travel through the bloodstream and spread to organs such as the liver, lungs, and bones. Stomach cancers that start in the lymphatic tissue (lymphoma), in the stomach muscular tissue (sarcoma) or in the tissues that support the organs of the digestive system (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are less common and are treated in different ways.


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Early clues to stomach cancer are chronic dyspepsia and epigastric discomfort, followed in later stages by weight loss, anorexia, a feeling of fullness after eating, anemia and fatigue. Blood in the stools may also be present and if the Cancer is in the Cardia (top) vomiting may occur.


CAUSATION

The exact cause of stomach cancer is unknown although the presence of the Helicopter pylori bacterium seems to be a major factor. Predisposing factors include environmental influences such as smoking and high alcohol intake. Because stomach cancer is more common amongst those with a family history and with people with type A blood, genetic factors are also implicated. Dietary factors, particularly methods of food preservation such as pickling, smoking or salting also have an influence on the prevalence of stomach cancer.


DIAGNOSIS

Stomach cancer is diagnosed through an examination that may include an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series; endoscopy or gastroscopy where a thin flexible tube is passed down the throat so the doctor can see into the stomach, esophagus and upper part of the bowel Barium meals and Barium swallows. Because stomach cancer can spread to the liver, the pancreas, and other organs near the stomach as well as to the lungs, the doctor may order a CT scan, a PET scan, an endoscopic ultrasound exam, or other tests to check these areas.


Stomach cancer can spread (metastasize) to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. Metastasis occurs in 80-90% of individuals with stomach cancer, with a five year survival rate of 75% in those diagnosed in early stages and less than 30% of those diagnosed in late stages.


TREATMENT

Although stomach cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, in many cases surgery is the treatment of choice. Even in patients whose disease is not considered surgically curable, resection offers a palliative effect and improves potential benefits from chemotherapy.


The nature and extent of the cancer determines what kind of surgery is most appropriate. Common surgical procedures include, partial and total removal of the stomach.

Antiemetics can control nausea, which increases as the cancer advances. In the more advanced stages, sedatives and tranquilizers may be necessary to control anxiety. Narcotics are commonly necessary to control sever and unremitting pain.

In some cases of advanced stomach cancer, a laser beam directed through an endoscope can vaporize most of the tumor and relieve obstruction without an operation.


PROGNOSIS

Stomach cancer is curable if detected early, but most people do not seek medical help until the disease is quite advanced, possibly because symptoms occur late and are often vague and non-specific. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidant vitamins (such as A and C) appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. The rate of stomach cancer is about doubled in smokers so the cessation of smoking is essential.


In the United States and most of the Western world, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 5% to 15%. In Japan, where stomach cancer often is diagnosed early, the 5 year survival rate is about 50%. Five year survival rates for more advanced stomach cancers range from, around 20% for those with regional disease to almost nil for those with distant metastases.


Treatment for metastatic stomach cancer can relieve symptoms and sometimes prolong survival, but long remissions are not common. The survival of inoperable stomach cancer is usually only a few months if untreated. With chemotherapy the average survival is about 12 months. If cancer is found before it has spread, the five-year relative survival rate is about 61%.

Pancreatic Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

Pancreatic cancer: Malignancy of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a “silent” disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause symptoms. If the tumor blocks the common bile duct and bile cannot pass into the digestive system, the skin and whites of the eyes may become yellow (jaundiced), and the urine darker as a result of accumulated bile pigment called bilirubin.

Pancreatic Cancer Causes

The exact as to what damages DNA in the vast majority of cases of pancreatic cancer is not clear. In other words the exact pancreatic cancer causes are not clear. But it is known that a small percentage of people develop the disease as a result of a genetic predisposition. These people who have a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, with pancreatic cancer have a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer themselves.

Age: is also a factor to be considered which increases the incidence of the disease. As age increases the probability of pancreatic cancer also increases. The incidence of Pancreatic Cancer is relatively low in individuals up to age 50, after which it increases significantly. The age group 65 – 79 has the highest incidence of Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms

In many cases, pancreatic cancer symptoms do not occur until the advanced stages. When pancreatic cancer symptoms do occur, they are often ignored because they are so vague and nonspecific. The first pancreatic cancer symptoms are usually pain in the abdomen and weight loss. Additional pancreatic cancer symptoms to look for include jaundice, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, diarrhea, chills, and muscle spasms.

Many of these pancreatic cancer symptoms are the result of a less serious ailment. However, only a doctor can accurately diagnosis whether or not your pancreatic cancer symptoms are the result of cancer.

Pain

Pancreatic cancer can cause pain and discomfort in your upper abdomen, which sometimes spreads to your back. At first, the pain may come and go, but as the cancer becomes larger, and more advanced, you may find that the pain is more constant, and lasts for longer.

The pain pancreatic cancer causes is often worse when you are lying down or eating. This type of pain tends to affect people whose tumour has formed in either the body or tail of the pancreas.

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment:

This cancer is difficult to diagnose because there are no symptoms in the early stages and because , when symptoms appear, they match other diseases. Depending on the stage and location of the cancer, surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be used. If the cancer has not spread beyond the pancreas, therapy can be successful, but, as stated earlier, it’s very unlikely to find pancreatic cancer in the early stages. In later stages, often the therapy concentrates on the comfort of the patient.

Obstruction of bile flow may be temporarily relieved by placement of a tube (stent) in the lower portion of the duct that drains bile from the liver and gallbladder. In most cases, however, the tumor eventually obstructs the duct above and below the stent. An alternative treatment method is the surgical creation of a channel that bypasses the obstruction. For example, an obstruction of the small intestine can be bypassed by a channel that connects the stomach with a portion of the small intestine that is beyond the obstruction.

Lung Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

 

Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. The vast majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas of the lung, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and the second most common in women,[1][2] is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually.

What causes lung cancer?

Smoking

The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with cigarette smoking, with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked over time; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked).

Lung cancer most commonly begins in the cells that line your lungs. Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers â?? both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke. But lung cancer also occurs in people who never smoked. In these cases, there may be no clear cause of lung cancer. Doctors have identified factors that may increase the risk.

Cancer that originates from lung cells is called a primary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer can start in the airways that branch off the trachea to supply the lungs (the bronchi) or in the small air sacs of the lung (the alveoli). Cancer may also spread (metastasize) to the lung from other parts of the body (most commonly from the breasts, colon, prostate, kidneys, thyroid gland, stomach, cervix, rectum, testes, bone, or skin).

Lung Cancer Symptoms

Lung cancer symptoms are commonly not experienced until the disease had advanced, sometimes delaying diagnosis. The symptoms of lung cancer also mimic the symptoms of other benign illnesses.

The most common lung cancer symptoms experienced are :

Onset of wheezing

Recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis

A persistent cough that does not go away

A sign is also an indication that something is not right in the body. But signs are defined as things that can be seen by a doctor, nurse, or other health care professional. Fever, rapid breathing rate, and abnormal breathing sounds heard through a stethoscope may be signs of pneumonia.

Lung Cancer Diagnosis

To help find the cause of symptoms, your doctor will evaluate your medical history, smoking history, exposure to environmental and occupational substances, and family history of cancer. Your doctor also will perform a physical exam and may recommend a chest X-ray and other tests. If lung cancer is suspected, sputum cytology â?? the microscopic examination of cells obtained from a deep-cough sample of mucus in the lungs â?? is a simple test that may be useful in detecting lung cancer. To confirm the presence of lung cancer, your doctor must examine tissue.

How can I prevent lung cancer?

The best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit smoking, or to never start in the first place. You should try and avoid being around people who are smoking; and also avoid pipes, cigars, and marijuana. If you live in an area with radon, you should make sure there is adequate ventilation in your basement to get rid of it. Use a detector to make sure the radon levels are low.

Treatment Of Lung Cancer

Many factors must be taken into account to determine the best treatment for an individual diagnosed with lung cancer. The specific type of cell, the location of the lung tumor, the stage of the disease with possible metastasis (spread to other parts of the body), and the general health of the individual must be considered. Various treatment plans may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or surgery.

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