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Prostate Cancer – Causes and Treatment

Prostate Cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the clinical term for a cancerous tumor on the prostate gland. As prostate cancer grows, it may spread to the interior of the gland, to tissues near the prostate, to sac-like structures attached to the prostate (seminal vesicles), and to distant parts of the body (e.g., bones, liver, lungs). Prostate cancer confined to the gland often is treated successfully.

The prostate is about the size of a large walnut. It is located close to the rectum just below the bladder at the base of the penis. The prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube
that carries urine and semen through the penis.Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Canadian men. It usually grows slowly and can often be cured or managed successfully.

Risk Factors
Any man can develop prostate cancer. Age, race, family history, and diet may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer.

What Are the Key Statistics About Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer, other than skin cancers, in American men. The American Cancer Society estimates that during 2008 about 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. About 1 man in 6 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, but only 1 man in 35 will die of it. More than 2 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

Causes and Risk Factors
Scientists don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer. They cannot explain why one man gets prostate cancer and another does not. However, they have been able to identify
some risk factors that are associated with the disease. A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease.

Diagnosis
Most of the time, prostate cancer does not produce symptoms in its early stages. Approximately 40 percent of prostate cancers are not diagnosed until they have spread beyond the

prostate. Screening tests are usually the first step in diagnosing prostate cancer. When prostate cancer is detected early â?? when it is still confined to the prostate gland â??

there is an excellent chance of successful treatment with minimal or short-term side effects. Mayo Clinic has many tools to help clarify abnormal findings. Read more about
prostate cancer diagnosis.

Treatment
Prostate cancer may be localised (only affecting the prostate), or it may be locally advanced or advanced (the cancer has moved outside the prostate).
If your doctors believe the cancer just affects the gland, they will discuss different kinds of treatment with you. These could be
·    Active surveillance (sometimes called watchful waiting) â?? where the state of the cancer is closely observed and treatment started only when, or if, necessary
·    External Beam Radiotherapy â?? where radiation is used to kill cancer cells
·    Surgery â?? where the prostate is removed

Treatment for prostate cancer may damage nerves and muscles near the prostate and the bowel and this may cause unwanted side effects.
The side effects of prostate cancer treatment include:
·    Impotence
·    Fertility problems
·    Urinary incontinence
·    Bowel problems
·    Loss of interest in sex
·    Change in body image

Lung Cancer Causes, Symptoms and Treatment for Lung Cancer

What is a Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer is cancer that starts in the lungs. Cancer is a disease where cancerous cells grow out of control, taking over normal cells and organs in the body.

Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer in both men and women.An estimated 173,700 new cases of lung cancer and an estimated 160,440 deaths from lung cancer will occur in the United States during 2004.

Causes of Lung Cancer
Smoking and Secondhand Smoke
Cigarette smoking causes lung cancer. In fact, smoking tobacco is the major risk factor for lung cancer. In the United States, about 90% of lung cancer deaths in men and almost 80% of lung cancer deaths in women are due to smoking.

Some rare types of lung cancer are not related to smoking. Other causes include exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as asbestos, uranium, chromium and nickel. These have all been linked to lung cancer but are very rare. Contact your local environmental health officer if you’re concerned.

Symptoms of Lung Cancer
People often decide to visit the doctor only after they have been bothered by certain complaints over a period of time. Individuals who have lung cancer frequently experience symptoms such as the following:

Up to one-fourth of all people with lung cancer may have no symptoms when the cancer is diagnosed.The symptoms are due to direct effects of the primary tumor, to effects of metastatic tumors in other parts of the body, or to disturbances of hormones, blood, or other systems caused by the cancer.

Less common symptoms can include: swelling of the face or neck, pain under your ribs (right hand side), a hoarse voice, and trouble swallowing.

Coughing up blood (hemoptysis) occurs in a significant number of people who have lung cancer. Any amount of coughed-up blood should cause alarm.

Treatment of Lung Cancer
An individual then has a better idea of the value of different forms of therapy. Other factors that are taken into account include the person’s general health, medical problems that may affect treatment (such as chemotherapy), and tumor characteristics.

In some cases you may choose not to undergo treatment. For instance, you may feel that the side effects of treatment will outweigh the potential benefits. When that’s the case, your doctor may suggest comfort (palliative) care to treat only the symptoms the cancer is causing, such as pain.

Once lung cancer is detected, a treatment plan is developed based on the patient’s physical health, whether the lung cancer is small cell or non-small cell and how extensively the cancer has spread. (See “Stages of Lung Cancer.”) Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of two or more of these therapies.

Medical Treatment
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

Chemotherapy and radiation may lead to a cure in a small number of patients. These therapies result in shrinking of the tumor and are known to prolong life for extended periods in most patients.

Chemotherapy and radiation are very effective at relieving symptoms.

After treatment
Follow-up care helps you and your health care team monitor your progress and your recovery from treatment. At first, your follow-up care may be managed by one of the specialists from your health care team. Later on it may be managed by your family doctor. The schedule of follow-up visits is different for each person. You might see your doctor more often in the first year after treatment, and less often after that.

Stomach Cancer, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Stomach cancer is common throughout the world and affects all races, it is more common in men than women, and has its peak age range between 40 and 60 years old. Stomach cancer mortality is higher in Japan and Chile, presumably because of the different diets in those countries where they are less dependent on red meat.


Over the last 25 years the incidence of stomach cancer in the western world has decreased by 50% and the resulting death rate is less than a third of what it used to be but in less developed countries it is still a major cause of death, probably because in these countries by the time the disease is diagnosed (usually by means of a Barium meal) the stomach cancer is at a very advanced stage.


TYPES OF STOMACH CANCER

There are several different types of stomach cancer, some of which are very rare. The most common types of stomach cancer start in the glandular cells of the stomach lining (adenocarcinomas), this is where stomach acid and digestive enzymes are made, and where most stomach cancers start. When the stomach cancer becomes more advanced, it can travel through the bloodstream and spread to organs such as the liver, lungs, and bones. Stomach cancers that start in the lymphatic tissue (lymphoma), in the stomach muscular tissue (sarcoma) or in the tissues that support the organs of the digestive system (gastrointestinal stromal tumors) are less common and are treated in different ways.


SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Early clues to stomach cancer are chronic dyspepsia and epigastric discomfort, followed in later stages by weight loss, anorexia, a feeling of fullness after eating, anemia and fatigue. Blood in the stools may also be present and if the Cancer is in the Cardia (top) vomiting may occur.


CAUSATION

The exact cause of stomach cancer is unknown although the presence of the Helicopter pylori bacterium seems to be a major factor. Predisposing factors include environmental influences such as smoking and high alcohol intake. Because stomach cancer is more common amongst those with a family history and with people with type A blood, genetic factors are also implicated. Dietary factors, particularly methods of food preservation such as pickling, smoking or salting also have an influence on the prevalence of stomach cancer.


DIAGNOSIS

Stomach cancer is diagnosed through an examination that may include an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series; endoscopy or gastroscopy where a thin flexible tube is passed down the throat so the doctor can see into the stomach, esophagus and upper part of the bowel Barium meals and Barium swallows. Because stomach cancer can spread to the liver, the pancreas, and other organs near the stomach as well as to the lungs, the doctor may order a CT scan, a PET scan, an endoscopic ultrasound exam, or other tests to check these areas.


Stomach cancer can spread (metastasize) to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. Metastasis occurs in 80-90% of individuals with stomach cancer, with a five year survival rate of 75% in those diagnosed in early stages and less than 30% of those diagnosed in late stages.


TREATMENT

Although stomach cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, in many cases surgery is the treatment of choice. Even in patients whose disease is not considered surgically curable, resection offers a palliative effect and improves potential benefits from chemotherapy.


The nature and extent of the cancer determines what kind of surgery is most appropriate. Common surgical procedures include, partial and total removal of the stomach.

Antiemetics can control nausea, which increases as the cancer advances. In the more advanced stages, sedatives and tranquilizers may be necessary to control anxiety. Narcotics are commonly necessary to control sever and unremitting pain.

In some cases of advanced stomach cancer, a laser beam directed through an endoscope can vaporize most of the tumor and relieve obstruction without an operation.


PROGNOSIS

Stomach cancer is curable if detected early, but most people do not seek medical help until the disease is quite advanced, possibly because symptoms occur late and are often vague and non-specific. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables that contain antioxidant vitamins (such as A and C) appears to lower the risk of stomach cancer. The rate of stomach cancer is about doubled in smokers so the cessation of smoking is essential.


In the United States and most of the Western world, the 5-year survival rate ranges from 5% to 15%. In Japan, where stomach cancer often is diagnosed early, the 5 year survival rate is about 50%. Five year survival rates for more advanced stomach cancers range from, around 20% for those with regional disease to almost nil for those with distant metastases.


Treatment for metastatic stomach cancer can relieve symptoms and sometimes prolong survival, but long remissions are not common. The survival of inoperable stomach cancer is usually only a few months if untreated. With chemotherapy the average survival is about 12 months. If cancer is found before it has spread, the five-year relative survival rate is about 61%.

Causes of Colorectal Cancer and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

 

Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. It is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Colorectal cancer causes 655,000 deaths worldwide per year, including about 16,000 in the UK, where it is the second most common site (after lung) to cause cancer death.[1] Many colorectal cancers are thought to arise from adenomatous polyps in the colon. These mushroom-like growths are usually benign, but some may develop into cancer over time.

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they’ll likely vary, depending on the cancer’s size and location in your large intestine.

Other symptoms include the following:

Abdominal discomfort (e.g., pain, bloating, cramping, fullness)

Change in bowel habits

Constipation or diarrhea

Narrow stools

Nausea and vomiting

Most of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by conditions other than colorectal cancer, such as infection, hemorrhoids, or inflammatory bowel disease. Still, if you have any of these problems, it’s important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, and smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lungs larynx, mouth, throat, esophagus, kidneys, bladder, colon and several other organs.

Diabetes

Genetic disorders such as familial polyposis syndromes and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer syndrome (HNPCC)

Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s colitis, granulomatous colitis)

Personal history of intestinal polyps or colorectal cancer

Alcohol

Research has indicated that alcohol increases colorectal cancer risk. Research has also shown that it lowers it, or that it has no effect at all. So which is right? All of it may be. The key appears to be what kind of alcohol you’re drinking.

Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

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Surgery is the treatment of choice for colorectal cancer. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and the overall health of the patient. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used as adjuvant treatment (i.e., in addition to surgery).

Given before surgery, radiation may reduce tumor size. This can improve the chances that the tumor will be removed successfully.

Laparoscopic surgery — Also called “keyhole surgery,” this innovative approach is being used for some patients with colon cancer. During the procedure, a lighted tube, called a laparoscope, and special instruments are placed inside the body through a few small incisions in the abdomen, rather than one large one. The surgeon is then guided by the laparoscope, which transmits a picture of the intestinal organs on a video monitor and then removes diseased areas of the intestines. Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer offers an alternative and many advantages to standard surgery, including less pain and a shorter recovery period.

Pancreatic Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

Pancreatic cancer: Malignancy of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer has been called a “silent” disease because early pancreatic cancer usually does not cause symptoms. If the tumor blocks the common bile duct and bile cannot pass into the digestive system, the skin and whites of the eyes may become yellow (jaundiced), and the urine darker as a result of accumulated bile pigment called bilirubin.

Pancreatic Cancer Causes

The exact as to what damages DNA in the vast majority of cases of pancreatic cancer is not clear. In other words the exact pancreatic cancer causes are not clear. But it is known that a small percentage of people develop the disease as a result of a genetic predisposition. These people who have a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, with pancreatic cancer have a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer themselves.

Age: is also a factor to be considered which increases the incidence of the disease. As age increases the probability of pancreatic cancer also increases. The incidence of Pancreatic Cancer is relatively low in individuals up to age 50, after which it increases significantly. The age group 65 – 79 has the highest incidence of Pancreatic Cancer.

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms

In many cases, pancreatic cancer symptoms do not occur until the advanced stages. When pancreatic cancer symptoms do occur, they are often ignored because they are so vague and nonspecific. The first pancreatic cancer symptoms are usually pain in the abdomen and weight loss. Additional pancreatic cancer symptoms to look for include jaundice, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, diarrhea, chills, and muscle spasms.

Many of these pancreatic cancer symptoms are the result of a less serious ailment. However, only a doctor can accurately diagnosis whether or not your pancreatic cancer symptoms are the result of cancer.

Pain

Pancreatic cancer can cause pain and discomfort in your upper abdomen, which sometimes spreads to your back. At first, the pain may come and go, but as the cancer becomes larger, and more advanced, you may find that the pain is more constant, and lasts for longer.

The pain pancreatic cancer causes is often worse when you are lying down or eating. This type of pain tends to affect people whose tumour has formed in either the body or tail of the pancreas.

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment:

This cancer is difficult to diagnose because there are no symptoms in the early stages and because , when symptoms appear, they match other diseases. Depending on the stage and location of the cancer, surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be used. If the cancer has not spread beyond the pancreas, therapy can be successful, but, as stated earlier, it’s very unlikely to find pancreatic cancer in the early stages. In later stages, often the therapy concentrates on the comfort of the patient.

Obstruction of bile flow may be temporarily relieved by placement of a tube (stent) in the lower portion of the duct that drains bile from the liver and gallbladder. In most cases, however, the tumor eventually obstructs the duct above and below the stent. An alternative treatment method is the surgical creation of a channel that bypasses the obstruction. For example, an obstruction of the small intestine can be bypassed by a channel that connects the stomach with a portion of the small intestine that is beyond the obstruction.

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