Tag Archives: Cancer

Oesophagus Cancer – What is Oesophagus Cancer – How To Cure it

Epidemiology

Cancer of the oesophagus is one of the cancers of the digestive tract of the most serious prognosis. Incidence and death rates are higher for populations other than the white race (5-years long survival rate in the United States in years 1992 – 1999 equalled 15% for the white race and 9%for others). As far as the incidence rate is concerned, the cancer is classified on the 13th position among men and on the 29th position among women. As far as the death rate is concerned, it is classified on the 12th and 25th positions respectively.

The following regions are characterized by the highest incidence rate: north Iran, southern republics of the former USSR and the north of China – over 100 for 100,000 (Asian belt of cancer of the oesophagus). Medium incidence rate – Sri Lanka, India, South Africa, France, Switzerland: 10-50 for 100,000; low – Europe, Japan, Great Britain, Canada – under 10 for 100,000.

Increasing tendency for adenocarcinoma (before 1980, it constituted about 15%, nowadays it’s about 35-37%) – in the USA and in Europe. The incidence rate of cancer of the cardia area is also increasing.

Etiology

Tobacco use – increases the risk of adenocarcinoma, no connection with the occurrence of squamous carcinoma. Alcohol abuse – increases the risk of squamous carcinoma. Joint effects of tobacco and high-proof spirits use increase the risk of cancer of the oesophagus about 100 times. Obesity – increases the risk of the incidence about 2 times. Diet poor in fruit increases the risk of squamous carcinoma about 2 times. Lack of carotene, selenium, E vitamin, scarcity of hot meals and consumption of spoiled fruit have influence on the incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma.

Culturally inclined dietary habits increase the risk of incidence in Asia, south Africa, south America and the Middle East; in Europe and in the USA these are tobacco use and alcohol abuse.

Additional risk factors: Tylosis Plantaris, Plummer syndrome / Vinson and Patterson / Kelly, Achalasia, Pre-existing presence of caustic substances, Pre-existing cancers of respiratory and digestive tract, Barrett’s oesophagus Infections of Helicobacter Pyroli and Human Papilloma Virus.

Symptoms Dysphagia, often preceded by discomfort of swallowing lasting several months, and loss of weight are the first symptoms in 90% of patients. Difficulties with swallowing may not be perceptible even if the narrowing of the oesophagus reaches 66%. There are 4 degrees of dysphagia: I grade – ability to swallow solids, II grade- ability to swallow ground food III grade – ability to swallow liquids only IV grade – aphagia

The following symptoms appear frequently: bringing up food, stomachaches and pneumonia. In more advanced cases: bloodstained vomit, blood spitting (because of tracheoesphageal fistula), retrosternal aches (infiltration of mediastinum structures), hoarseness, and cough (invasion of tracheal lymph nodes and infiltration of recurrent laryngeal nerve).

Natural course of the illness

Phase I – initial – is reversible thanks to prevention methods. It may last up to 30 years, it is characterized by a low or advanced metaplasia of epithelium cells, then it results in dysplasia, hyperchromasia and dyscariosis of nuclei. Phase II – results in carcinoma in situ (pre-invasion cancer). It is clinically asymptomatic and may last for a long time. Afterwards, cancer permeates basement membrane and assumes an infiltrative character. In clinical terms, it is the first degree of advanced cancer. Phase III – II and III grade of advanced cancer. Clinical symptoms: increasing dysphagia, narrowing of the inside diameter of the oesophagus visible in radiological examination. Phase II clinical – no metastases to regional lymph nodes, III – metastases are present. Phase IV – IV degree of advanced cancer. Terminal phase, it lasts for a short time, remote metastases are possible, often a non-operational cancer.

Classification

TNM classification Size of tumour TX primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 no evidence of the primary tumour Tis carcinoma in situ T1 tumour affects lamina propria of the mucosa or submucosa T2 tumour affects muscularis propria T3 tumour affects tunica adventitia T4 tumour infiltrates adjacent structures Lymph nodes NX regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed N0 regional lymph nodes are not affected N1 regional lymph nodes are affected Remote metastases M0 absent M1 remote metastases are present (including visceral nodes)

Classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Abbreviations mentioned above are used in the description: 0 grade Tis, N0, M0; I grade  T1, N0, M0; IIA grade T2, N0, M0 or T3, N0, M0; IIBgrade T1, N1, M0 or T2, N1, M0; III grade T3, N1, M0 or T4, any N, M0; IV grade any T, any N, and M1.

Diagnostics

Diagnostically basic tests: Thorough subjective test with medical history. Radiological examination of the oesophagus with contrast medium, together with stomach and duodenum tests – narrowing or change of the oesophageal axis may signify the presence of a tumour and it estimates the usefulness of the stomach to be joined. Double contrast use is advisable in order to reveal smaller changes that are invisible during tests with single contrast use.

Diagnostically additional tests: Aspirational biopsy of palpable cervical nodes in order to exclude metastases beyond the chest. Oesophagoscopy with a sample taken to histopathological tests – estimates the cancer macroscopally (it can be assigned to one of the following groups: convex, ulcerating, superficial, egzofitic and mixed) and microscopally, it is localized precisely against the physiological narrowing of the oesophagus, and regarding the distance from the upper incisors; one should pay attention to changes in the area of the pharyngeal muscle connection of squamous and column epithelinum and diaphragm hiatus, presence or absence of satellite changes such as erosions, Barrett’s oesophagus or esophagitis. In the case of unambiguous test results, toluidine blue or Lugol’s iodine should be used. Bronchoscopy should always be conducted if there is a possibility of resection of upper or middle part of the oesophagus in order to exclude trachea’s and bronchial tree infiltration. CT of the chest and the upper abdomen in order to localize metastatic changes. Esophageal ultrasonography (EUS) as a confirmation of the afflicting of mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI – its precision is comparable to CT. PET with 18F – fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) according to initial tests detects the tumour and presence of the regional metastases with a greater precision than CT, it certainly works better in the detection of the presence of remote metastases. PET with 11C-methacholine – detects with greater precision presence of small metastatic foci in the mediastinal area; according to some tests, best results are achieved by PET together with combined use of FGD and 11C-methacholine.

Preoperative tests: Test of cardiovascular system function – ECG, in some justified cases echocardiography, exercise test, arteriography of carotid artery, Doppler’s USG of carotid arteries. Test of respiratory system function – spirometrical and gasometrical tests; assessment of vital lung capacity, one-second tense tidal volume, Tiffeneau-test.   Kidneys and liver function test determination of urea level, creatinine, creatinine clearance, level of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions, level of transaminases GOT, GPT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, hepatic tests. Determination of the complete albumin level and albumin found in plasma. Assessment of the degree of undernourishment and dehydration assessment of the thickness of a skin fold, Determination of the general state of a patient scales of Karnofsky and WHO.

Qualification to operation: General state according to Karnofsky’s scale  at least 80, according to WHO – not more than 1. Normal functioning of bone marrow (RBC 3.5 mln/1ml, PLT 100thous/1ml). Normal functioning of kidneys (indicator/gauge of creatinine clearance >50l l/min). No remote metastases (M0). Treatment

Surgery

Surgery usually consists in a removal of the tumour together with a part or the whole of the oesophagus and surrounding lymph nodes and tissues. Then, the remaining part of the oesophagus is joined to the stomach in the cervical area in order to preserve swallowing ability. Sometimes, endoprostheses are used, however, usually only of stomach or intestine . An additional joint of the stomach directly to the intestine may be carried out in order to facilitate passage of food from the stomach to the intestine. It should be remembered that this type of surgery depends mainly on the general state of a patient and the stage of cancer development.

Main methods used in surgery are presented below:

Transhiatal esophagectomy (m. Orringer). 1. Upper part of abdomen and lower part of neck are opened, no direct invasion in the chest. 2. Oesophagus is dissected with care from mediastinal structures and then removed. 3. Subsequently, stomach is connected with the cervical part of the oesophagus (end-to-end esophagogastrostomy) carried in the site of anterior mediastinum. Transmediastinal esophagectomy (m. Akiyama). 1. Chest is opened on the left and right side (more often on the right side, with the tumour in the upper and middle part of the oesophagus, and taking into consideration the aortic arch; more often on the left if the tumour is localized in the joint of the oesophagus and the stomach). 2. Incision in the sixth left intercostal area exposes anterior mediastinum. 3. Semicircular incision of the diaphragm, 1 inch from the costal arch, exposes upper part of abdomen. 4. Oesophagus is removed with perioesophageal nodes and nodes of lesser curvature of the stomach 5. Substitute is made mainly from stomach: a) with incision made on the right side, laparotomy is additionally performed in order to prepare stomach and to place in the site in the anterior mediastinum or in the retrosternal area, b) with incision made on the left side, stomach is pulled under the aortic arch and joined to cervical stump of the oesophagus. Esophagectomy en bloc. 1. It consists in excision of the tumour with a wide margin including surrounding structures in the background together with pleura and with pericardium in front. 2. Lymphatic vessels placed between the oesophagus, aorta and thoracic duct are excised en bloc. 3. Anterior mediastinum excision guarantees complete removal of nodes from the split of trachea to oesophageal hiatus. 4. Hepatic, visceral, left gastric nodes and nodes of lesser curvature of the stomach, parahiatal and retroperitoneal, which reduces the number of local post operational metastases to less than 10%. Esophagectomy en bloc with tripolar lymphadenectomy It consists in additional excision of cervical nodes.

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy treatment consists in the use of highly energetic rays in order to destroy cancerous cells. Radiotherapy may be provided from an external or an internal source (brachytherapy, it consists in introduction of a pipe with radiating material into the inside diameter of the oesophagus). Radiotherapy may only be used  together with chemotherapy, as an alternative treatment method, if the stage of cancer or other factors do not allow to carry out a surgery. It can be used either alone or together with chemotherapy, before surgery is performed. In palliative treatment, radiotherapy also plays an important role.

Chemotherapy

Pharmaceutical treatment consists in anti-cancerous medicines use, usually administered intravenously affecting cancerous cells by circulation around/ in the body. It can be used together with radiotherapy, as an alternative way of treatment to surgery and preoperatively.

In the phase of controlled clinical tests, other ways of treatment are possible, such as laser therapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT).

Palliative treatment

Over 70% of the diagnosed patients cannot be qualified for surgical treatment because of the extensiveness of cancerous changes. Palliative treatment is intended to improve the general state of a patient, decrease ailment and difficulties   swallowing. The following methods are applied: Palliative resection Evasive connections – creation of a bridge evading a narrowing or a closure of the inside diameter of the oesophagus. Oesophageal prostheses. Gastric and intestinal fistula, including microfistula of small intestine – enabling feeding directly to the inside diameter of the intestine. Mechanical widening of the narrowing. Self-widening Stent’s mass. Laser therapy – a surgery consisting in introducing a fiberscope with a laser light into the oesophagus, with breaks lasting several days, which enables exfoliation of cells and widening of the inside diameter of the oesophagus. The most popular laser:  Nd Yag laser.

Breast Cancer Detection – Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Detection – Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer detection is crucial in finding and treating breast cancer. Many people simply react to the symptoms of breast cancer, which at that point is often too late.

Therefore it can make a life changing difference (literally) to be taught effective breast cancer detection techniques so that you stand the best possible chance of fighting the cancer from day one.

After all, most cancers can be cured when they are dealt with early enough.

One way is breast cancer screening. Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.

It is easier to treat the cancer patient when found in time. Early detection of breast cancer means that you can find breast cancer and start treating it before it has time to grow and spread.

The cure is very promising when finding breast cancer in its early stages. If you don’t get early screening for breast cancer and get the pain or symptoms of breast cancer then the cancer may have started to grow larger and even could have spread out beyond the breast. This is why early detection is so important in finding breast cancer at its earliest stage.

When breast cancer is found during early exams it is most likely to be in the breast and smaller in size, not having the time to grow larger and spread out beyond the breast. If it is found later on then it may have had the time to get larger and spread beyond the breast.

This can be prevented if you decide to get early detection for breast cancer. Early detection can find the cancer before it can grow larger in size causing more problems. The size of breast cancer that is detected and how much it has spread is how a doctor will determine the outlook for a patient.

Breast cancer detection can save many lives every year. If you go to get early screening and can get other people you know to get screened for breast cancer then you can help to save lives. Getting your loved ones and friends to get early screening may also help to save their lives.

Breast cancer that is detected early and treated at that time is more likely to be removed with success. It can improve your chances of being cured when found early. So it is important to get to your doctor when your reach a certain age to start getting early detection for breast cancer and understanding the many other ways you can practice breast cancer detection through professional advice.

What is Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma Skin Cancer?

A squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer is a type of skin cancer that usually results from a long term sun damage or exposure to ultra-violet rays to the skin. Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer spreads gradually and also has the capacity to spread to tissues near the affected area such as the eye. The cancer can also spread to distant parts of the body in case, it is not treated on time.

The best and the only way to make sure if a skin growth is cancerous is to go for a biopsy. The process involves removal of a small section of the skin. Thereafter a pathologist analyzes it under the microscope in a medical laboratory.

Remember that a biopsy is not a process to remove cancer. It just works towards taking off the tip of the cancer.

In some cases the skin tends to heal once the biopsy is done as it grows over the cancer. However, this does not indicate that the cancer is removed completely. Here, the cancer is only covered with a blanket of skin. In case, the cancer is not removed fully, it can get deeper in to the skin and even metastasize to the internal organs of the body resulting in death of a human being.

Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer is known to be one of the most common forms of skin cancer. It is shocking but true that over 25,000 new cases have been reported in a year in the United States alone. The cancer originates from the squamous cells that are most of the portion of the upper layer of the skin.

All cases of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer are not serious. If detected early and treated promptly, one can easily survive this disease. However, if not treated properly, the disease can prove to be very hard to treat and can even result in disfigurement.

There are several causes of the origination of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer. Some of these include the following:

i) Frequent and long exposure to harmful sun rays. This result in severe skin damage and ultimately develop in to squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer.

ii) The damage to the skin done by sun is the most responsible factor for development of this type of cancer. The face is most exposed to sun and the cancer spreads to the other parts of the body.

iii) Light skinned people have greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer.

iv) People who have already developed this cancer are said to develop more.

Chronic exposure to the sun is the main cause of this type of cancer. The tumor invades to body parts such as face, neck, bald scalp, hands, shoulders, arms and back that are more exposed to sun. The lower lip and the rim of the ear are more vulnerable to these cancers.

Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer may also develop due to certain types of injury such as scars, burns, long existing sores, sites exposed to X-rays or some harmful chemicals, such as arsenic of by-products of petroleum. Reduced immunity is also one of the main reasons for the spread of this type of cancer. Detect and treat early to stay away from possible damage and full recovery.

Cancer – It Is Not A Single Disease

Cancer is a serious issue. Not just today, it has been an issue for a long time, it is only with today’s technology that we have been able to diagnose with any form of accuracy. Cancer is, of all things, a disease of our cells, the main component that we are made from becomes ill, it is this that is known as cancer. In the event of cancer, what happens is that our cells grow and multiply in an uncontrollable rate. This is why radiation is used on cancer patients as the radiation basically kills the cells while the rest of the process focuses on fixing the abnormality that caused the uncontrollable growth rate.


When you hear the term cancerous, you may also her the term malignant. Malignancy and cancer is one in the same, they are just two different words with the same exact meaning, much like many words in the English dictionary. Benign however, is not cancer at all. A person can have a fibrous growth on the neck cause by the sun and heat that is not cancerous, it is just a cyst, and it is also known as a benign growth.


Cancer on the other hand is an entirely different ballgame. I used the term abnormality before, now I am going to describe this abnormality. It is not a single disease, but rather a grouping of over 100 diseases working together, but each with its own distinctive purpose. Cancer can form in any tissue in the body, when you hear the term the cancer is spreading; it will still be called the same cancer even if it has spread to another tissue type. It is dependant on where the cancer started when giving it a name.


Skin cancer is considered by far to be the most common type of cancer, while a thyroidal cancer is considered to be the least. However, these numbers are not entirely accurate, thyroidal cancer is the least common but only over 30,000 cases per year. There are many less common types of cancer but due to the lower number of yearly cases it may not be recorded accurately.


On top of this, many cancers are also classified together in groups like colon and rectal types of cancer are grouped as colorectal cancers. Further, cancers like kidney cancer can actually start in two different places and though the type of cancer may be different such as parenchyma and pelvic, the cancer is still classified as a cancer of the kidneys.


Many people are also fully aware of the type of cancer known as leukemia. Leukemia is a cancer of your blood and bone marrow (the source of your body’s blood production). In leukemia, your blood cells themselves become cancerous which then leads to all types of complications like the lack of an ability to clot blood due to bone marrow cells. It is this reason why many leukemia patients can easily bruise and if they get cut, it is harder to stop the flow.

Are You At Risk Of Getting Cancer?

However, this young man had faith that he could do it, and in all kinds of weather he ran a marathon a day for weeks, running from the east coast of Canada nearly to Thunder Bay where cancer over took him.


The worst of all and the cancer of the retail path is gossip. Even after the age of 50 you should also not be suffering from cancerous conditions because your body is designed to stop most cases of cancer before they even start.


Previously, the only screening test for prostate cancer was a digital rectal exam. Inhibition of these reactions may help with anti-cancer treatment. For this reason, some treatments include hormone treatment for prostate cancer.


Cancer may be ubiquitous, creating turmoil and despair. Although most age spots are harmless blotches, the early stages of skin cancer can masquerade as innocent looking dark spots. Exposing skin – the face, ear, neck, lips, and the backs of the hands – to the sun causes most nonmelanoma skin cancer.


Also, they were able to walk faster and further in only four weeks and they experienced less cancer related fatigue than the control group. There a pathologist will determine if the cells are skin cancer forming cells. An experienced dermatologist can often determine whether a growth on the skin is or is not cancerous just by looking at it.


If one or both of your breasts are in pain, again it’s important to keep in mind that you don’t necessarily have breast cancer. While doctors don’t fully understand exactly what causes prostate cancer, there are some risk factors that do increase a man’s likelihood of developing this disease. This results in reduced risks of heart disease, cancer and improved immune system functions.


As scientists are researching ways to prevent and treat skin cancer, the results involving green tea are promising. Other diseases related to asbestos are lung cancer and asbestosis. And of course a diet that’s higher in dietary fibre that comes from a vegetarian diet will decrease the likelihood or risk of colon cancer.


This treatment involves the removal of the tumour and some adjacent healthy tissues in order to stem the cancer spread. If the samples reveal skin cancer, the dermatologist will remove the growth in one of a number of ways. In fact, only skin cancer is more common.


Women with breast cancer find that Femara and fertility concerns are congruent. Many health problems ranging from parasites to cancer can result from drinking contaminated water.


It is now possible for researchers to make sense of the causation of a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer, heart disease, atherosclerosis, arthritis, Alzheimer’s and other diseases of old age, and to work towards counteracting and preventing these conditions.


There is an ever-increasing amount of research that suggests certain types of sugars can have an enormous benefit to our health, including boosting human immune response, to inhibiting cancerous tumour growth.


The cause of Mantle cell lymphoma and of the other cancers of the lymphatic system called lymphomas is represented by the errors that can occur in the production of a lymphocyte. Researchers in India discovered a link between the rise in carbonation consumption and esophageal cancer in America over the past two decades.


Actions may not ward off cancer (they did not for me); they will allow time to manage it quickly and wisely.


Before going into some things you can do to avoid prostate cancer it needs to be mentioned that there are unfortunately some obstacles that simply can’t be avoided. By using a sunless tanning lotion you can avoid the skin cancer risk that comes from the sun.

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