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Category Archives: Cancer

Urinary Bladder Cancer – Symptoms and Diagnosis Indepth Detail


Above all, occupational exposure to chemical compounds (among others from the group of aromatic amines) is considered to be the factor leading to falling ill with cancer of the urinary bladder. Smoking tobacco is also mentioned (cancerogenic substances found in tobacco smoke such as nitrosamines, as well as tryptophane metabolites excreted in the urine). An additional risk factor, which may contribute to the development of more aggressive forms of cancer of the urinary bladder is a long exposure to foreign bodies and infections (mainly Schistosoma haematobium, it concerns African and Small Asia countries, as well as medicines – cyclofosphamide) and small pelvis irradiation due to another tumors in that area.

Genetic disturbances observed in the case of cancers of the urinary bladder are mainly the mutations within suppressor gene p53, oncogene erbB-2, p21, c-myc.


One of the most frequent symptoms of cancer of the urinary bladder, which forces the patient to visit a doctor is haematuria, sometimes with clots. With the advance of the tumor process disuric symptoms may take place, namely pain, bladder tenesmus, burning sensation during miction, sometimes  temporary retention of urine. Pain in the lumbar area as well as features of urinary tracts infection may appear during a stasis of urine in the upper urinary tracts. The pain in pelvis and around groin as well as swelling of the lower extremities usually accompany further symptoms of the disease. The first ‘signaling’ symptoms are the pains caused by metastatic changes in bones.


Even one haematuria or earlier mentioned pain symptoms are an absolute indication for a patient to be examined in order to exclude the possibility of cancer of the bladder. Ultrasonography should be the first examination in the diagnosis of cancer of the urinary bladder, when the tumor change may be depicted, provided that it is big enough, the bladder is full and the place on the wall accessible during examination.

In contrast examination unevenness of bladder contour, filling defects and rigidity of infiltrated wall may be observed depending on the value and the degree of infiltration.

When a suspicious change is detected in bladder, the character of the change should be explained as soon as possible by the means of histopathologic examination. Having done bimanual examination (in order to find any out of bladder changes) cystoscopy is done. During the examination, segments are taken for histopathologic examination.

The urine cytology examination seems proper, nonetheless the negative result does not exclude the presence of a tumor process.

Apart from the above-mentioned examination, morphology, general urine examination, urography (the evaluation of urethers and kidneys) as well as small pelvis computer tomography (the evaluation of local infiltration and the invading stage of lymph nodes) are done. In the case of pain disorders, radiological examination and bone system scinigraphy seem advisable. Similarly to other tumors, chest RTG, gynecological examination in women and an evaluation of prostate’s state in men are recommended. From the prognosis perspective, determining the degree of histological tumor malignancy (basic prognostic factor apart from the state of primeval tumor determined according to TNM classification) seems vital. The following degrees of differentiation are distinguished: well-differentiated cancer (G1) – about 45% of detected cancers, moderately differentiated (G2), poorly differentiated (G3) and undifferentiated cancer (G4). The diagnostic value of BTA and NMP-22 markers is being checked and their determination does not constitute a norm as far as diagnostic methods are concerned.

Histological Classification

Epithelial tumors:

- transitional cell papilloma – transitional cell papilloma infiltrating the bladder wall – planoepithelial papilloma – transitional cell carcinoma – kinds of transitional cell carcinoma: ” with planoepithelial transformation ” with adenous transformation ” with planoepithelial and adenous transformation – basal cell carcinoma – adenocarcinoma – anaplastic tumor

Non-epithelial tumors:

- adenoma – fibroma – myxoma – myoma – angioma – lipoma – pheochromocytoma – sarcoma


In order to estimate the level of progression the TNM classification or modified system by Jewett and Marshall are applied.

TNM Classification

Pathological classification pT, pN corresponds to T, N clinical classification.

T – primary tumor

Tx -  Primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 – No evidence of primary tumour Tis – Carcinoma in situ, preinvasive tumor with focusal anaplasy (G1, G2, G3) within epithelium Ta – Noninvasive papillary carcinoma T1 – Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue T2 – Tumor invades muscle T3 – Tumor deeply infiltrates a part of muscular coat not exceeding it (T3a) Tumor infiltrates the muscular coat (T3b) Tumor invades perivesical tissue T3a – extracapsular extensions (unilateral) T3b – extracapsular extensions (bilateral) T3c – Seminal vesicles infiltration T4 – Tumor invades other organs T4a – Tumor invades the prostate, uterus, vagina T4b – Tumor invades the pelvic wall, abdominal wall

N – regional lymph nodes

Nx – Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed N0 – No regional lymph node metastasis N1- Regional lymph node metastasis N2 – Metastasis in a single lymph node, >2 cm but ≤5 cm in greatest dimension; or multiple lymph nodes, ≤5 cm in greatest dimension N3 – Metastasis in a lymph node, >5 cm in greatest dimension

M – distant metastases

MX – Distant metastases cannot be assessed M0 – No distant metastases M1- Distant metastases M1a – lymph nodes other than regional M1b – bone(s) M1c – other organs

In Whitmor-Catalon’s classification A, B, C, D degrees correspond to T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively in TNM classification.

Classification by Jewett and Marshall

Stage 0: No tumor found in the specimen superficial tumour not invading the submucosa carcinoma in situ Stage A: superficial tumour invading the submucosa Stage B: muscle invasive tumour Stage B1: superficial invasion (less than halfway) Stage B2: deep invasion (more than halfway) Stage C: invasion into the perivesical fat Stage D: Extra vesical disease, further specified in Stage D1: invasion of contiguous organ or regional lymph nodes metastases Stage D2: Extra metastases to distant organs


The choice of treatment for patients suffering from urinary bladder cancer depends on the degree of progression according to TNM classification, the level of tumor’s histological malignancy and the general state of the patient.

Surgical treatment

Transurethral resection of tumor (TURT)

This method is used in the case of surface changes (Ta, T1, T2, as well as the multiple ones and when treating preinvasive tumor Tis, if the number of focuses is low and the atypy insignificant). TURT may be done also in the case of T3a tumors if the diameter of the base does not exceed 2 cm. In the case of advanced stages (T3, T4 ) it is sometimes used as paliative treatment.

Partial resection of urinary bladder

It is applied when a 3 cm microscope margin of healthy tissue is possible in big, individual focuses of T2 tumor and in the early period of T3.

Complete resection of urinary bladder (cystectomy)

A two-stage surgery which consists in cutting out a bladder together with lymph nodes and recreating the possibility to drain the urine from the upper urinary tracts.

The operation concerns patients suffering from:

- poorly differentiated cancer (G3) – early recurrence after treatment using other methods – tumors invading the neck of urinary bladder, prostate urethra, bladder triangle when urine flow from kidneys is impeded – extended and multifocal pre-invasive tumors – bleeding from the bladder impossible to control

Cystectomy is also done among patients who underwent unsuccessful partial resection and after recurrences after radiotherapy.

Three ways of urine flow are applicable. One of them, known as the Bricker’s is about creating ileal conduit for the urine to flow to a bag stuck to the skin. The second option is the creation of an intestinal cistern, which when full is emptied by the patient by self catheterization through a skin fistula. The most comfortable way is the creation of a surrogate urinary bladder linked to the urethra (a patient urinates moving his/her stomach muscles).


It is applied among patients who do not give their consent to the treatment or when a radical cystectomy is often impossible in their cases. Radiotherapy among patients in T2 to T4 progression stage creates a possibility of attaining a 5-year survival without disease recurrence among 35 to 45% of patients and a 5-year complete survival among 23-40%.

A 45 Gy dose is given for the pelvis and then a boost for bladder tumor is done up to 65 Gy dose. The introduction of conformal radiotherapy which consists in 3-dimensional planning system (3D CRT) into clinical practice in the recent years enables more effective application of radiotherapy in the radical treatment of urinary bladder cancer. Chemotherapy

In the case of urinary bladder cancer it is applied mainly as palliative treatment or together with surgical methods or radiotherapy.

Inductive chemotherapy aims at reducing the size of tumor most often before the radiation.

Most often applied treatment schemes are:


Metotreksat 30 mg/m2 im Doksorubicine 30 mg/m2 iv Cisplatine 70mg/m2 iv Vinblastine 3mg/m2 iv The pause between the cycles 28 days


Metotreksat 30 mg/m2 im Cisplatine 70mg/m2 iv Vinblastine 3mg/m2 iv The pause between the cycles 28 days


Cyklofosfamide 650 mg/m2 iv Doksorubicine 50 mg/m2 iv Cisplatine 100mg/m2 iv The pause between the cycles 21 – 28 days

Paclitaxel (monotherapy)

Paclitaxel 250 mg/m2 iv 1 day, the cycles repeated every 21 days

Direct bladder treatment

Such a method is recommended in the cases of:

- tumors of T1 degree (multiple) – multifocal changes of Ta type – lesions of Tis character

Most often used drugs are: thipotepa, BCG vaccine, mitomycine, doksorubicine.

BCG therapy of the surface tumor has been more effective so far than direct bladder chemotherapy, as it decreases the risk of regional recurrence and, what is more, decreases probability of undergoing the disease process at invasive cancer stage.


In the case of urinary bladder cancer the prognosis depends on the level of progression as well as the choice of optimal treatment and the internal state of patients. A percentage of 5-year cure most often oscillates around 50-70% as for the I and the II degree, and 20-30% as for the III degree. Longer survival periods are rarely reported in the IV degree.

Oesophagus Cancer – What is Oesophagus Cancer – How To Cure it


Cancer of the oesophagus is one of the cancers of the digestive tract of the most serious prognosis. Incidence and death rates are higher for populations other than the white race (5-years long survival rate in the United States in years 1992 – 1999 equalled 15% for the white race and 9%for others). As far as the incidence rate is concerned, the cancer is classified on the 13th position among men and on the 29th position among women. As far as the death rate is concerned, it is classified on the 12th and 25th positions respectively.

The following regions are characterized by the highest incidence rate: north Iran, southern republics of the former USSR and the north of China – over 100 for 100,000 (Asian belt of cancer of the oesophagus). Medium incidence rate – Sri Lanka, India, South Africa, France, Switzerland: 10-50 for 100,000; low – Europe, Japan, Great Britain, Canada – under 10 for 100,000.

Increasing tendency for adenocarcinoma (before 1980, it constituted about 15%, nowadays it’s about 35-37%) – in the USA and in Europe. The incidence rate of cancer of the cardia area is also increasing.


Tobacco use – increases the risk of adenocarcinoma, no connection with the occurrence of squamous carcinoma. Alcohol abuse – increases the risk of squamous carcinoma. Joint effects of tobacco and high-proof spirits use increase the risk of cancer of the oesophagus about 100 times. Obesity – increases the risk of the incidence about 2 times. Diet poor in fruit increases the risk of squamous carcinoma about 2 times. Lack of carotene, selenium, E vitamin, scarcity of hot meals and consumption of spoiled fruit have influence on the incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma.

Culturally inclined dietary habits increase the risk of incidence in Asia, south Africa, south America and the Middle East; in Europe and in the USA these are tobacco use and alcohol abuse.

Additional risk factors: Tylosis Plantaris, Plummer syndrome / Vinson and Patterson / Kelly, Achalasia, Pre-existing presence of caustic substances, Pre-existing cancers of respiratory and digestive tract, Barrett’s oesophagus Infections of Helicobacter Pyroli and Human Papilloma Virus.

Symptoms Dysphagia, often preceded by discomfort of swallowing lasting several months, and loss of weight are the first symptoms in 90% of patients. Difficulties with swallowing may not be perceptible even if the narrowing of the oesophagus reaches 66%. There are 4 degrees of dysphagia: I grade – ability to swallow solids, II grade- ability to swallow ground food III grade – ability to swallow liquids only IV grade – aphagia

The following symptoms appear frequently: bringing up food, stomachaches and pneumonia. In more advanced cases: bloodstained vomit, blood spitting (because of tracheoesphageal fistula), retrosternal aches (infiltration of mediastinum structures), hoarseness, and cough (invasion of tracheal lymph nodes and infiltration of recurrent laryngeal nerve).

Natural course of the illness

Phase I – initial – is reversible thanks to prevention methods. It may last up to 30 years, it is characterized by a low or advanced metaplasia of epithelium cells, then it results in dysplasia, hyperchromasia and dyscariosis of nuclei. Phase II – results in carcinoma in situ (pre-invasion cancer). It is clinically asymptomatic and may last for a long time. Afterwards, cancer permeates basement membrane and assumes an infiltrative character. In clinical terms, it is the first degree of advanced cancer. Phase III – II and III grade of advanced cancer. Clinical symptoms: increasing dysphagia, narrowing of the inside diameter of the oesophagus visible in radiological examination. Phase II clinical – no metastases to regional lymph nodes, III – metastases are present. Phase IV – IV degree of advanced cancer. Terminal phase, it lasts for a short time, remote metastases are possible, often a non-operational cancer.


TNM classification Size of tumour TX primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 no evidence of the primary tumour Tis carcinoma in situ T1 tumour affects lamina propria of the mucosa or submucosa T2 tumour affects muscularis propria T3 tumour affects tunica adventitia T4 tumour infiltrates adjacent structures Lymph nodes NX regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed N0 regional lymph nodes are not affected N1 regional lymph nodes are affected Remote metastases M0 absent M1 remote metastases are present (including visceral nodes)

Classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Abbreviations mentioned above are used in the description: 0 grade Tis, N0, M0; I grade  T1, N0, M0; IIA grade T2, N0, M0 or T3, N0, M0; IIBgrade T1, N1, M0 or T2, N1, M0; III grade T3, N1, M0 or T4, any N, M0; IV grade any T, any N, and M1.


Diagnostically basic tests: Thorough subjective test with medical history. Radiological examination of the oesophagus with contrast medium, together with stomach and duodenum tests – narrowing or change of the oesophageal axis may signify the presence of a tumour and it estimates the usefulness of the stomach to be joined. Double contrast use is advisable in order to reveal smaller changes that are invisible during tests with single contrast use.

Diagnostically additional tests: Aspirational biopsy of palpable cervical nodes in order to exclude metastases beyond the chest. Oesophagoscopy with a sample taken to histopathological tests – estimates the cancer macroscopally (it can be assigned to one of the following groups: convex, ulcerating, superficial, egzofitic and mixed) and microscopally, it is localized precisely against the physiological narrowing of the oesophagus, and regarding the distance from the upper incisors; one should pay attention to changes in the area of the pharyngeal muscle connection of squamous and column epithelinum and diaphragm hiatus, presence or absence of satellite changes such as erosions, Barrett’s oesophagus or esophagitis. In the case of unambiguous test results, toluidine blue or Lugol’s iodine should be used. Bronchoscopy should always be conducted if there is a possibility of resection of upper or middle part of the oesophagus in order to exclude trachea’s and bronchial tree infiltration. CT of the chest and the upper abdomen in order to localize metastatic changes. Esophageal ultrasonography (EUS) as a confirmation of the afflicting of mediastinal lymph nodes. MRI – its precision is comparable to CT. PET with 18F – fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) according to initial tests detects the tumour and presence of the regional metastases with a greater precision than CT, it certainly works better in the detection of the presence of remote metastases. PET with 11C-methacholine – detects with greater precision presence of small metastatic foci in the mediastinal area; according to some tests, best results are achieved by PET together with combined use of FGD and 11C-methacholine.

Preoperative tests: Test of cardiovascular system function – ECG, in some justified cases echocardiography, exercise test, arteriography of carotid artery, Doppler’s USG of carotid arteries. Test of respiratory system function – spirometrical and gasometrical tests; assessment of vital lung capacity, one-second tense tidal volume, Tiffeneau-test.   Kidneys and liver function test determination of urea level, creatinine, creatinine clearance, level of sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium ions, level of transaminases GOT, GPT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, hepatic tests. Determination of the complete albumin level and albumin found in plasma. Assessment of the degree of undernourishment and dehydration assessment of the thickness of a skin fold, Determination of the general state of a patient scales of Karnofsky and WHO.

Qualification to operation: General state according to Karnofsky’s scale  at least 80, according to WHO – not more than 1. Normal functioning of bone marrow (RBC 3.5 mln/1ml, PLT 100thous/1ml). Normal functioning of kidneys (indicator/gauge of creatinine clearance >50l l/min). No remote metastases (M0). Treatment


Surgery usually consists in a removal of the tumour together with a part or the whole of the oesophagus and surrounding lymph nodes and tissues. Then, the remaining part of the oesophagus is joined to the stomach in the cervical area in order to preserve swallowing ability. Sometimes, endoprostheses are used, however, usually only of stomach or intestine . An additional joint of the stomach directly to the intestine may be carried out in order to facilitate passage of food from the stomach to the intestine. It should be remembered that this type of surgery depends mainly on the general state of a patient and the stage of cancer development.

Main methods used in surgery are presented below:

Transhiatal esophagectomy (m. Orringer). 1. Upper part of abdomen and lower part of neck are opened, no direct invasion in the chest. 2. Oesophagus is dissected with care from mediastinal structures and then removed. 3. Subsequently, stomach is connected with the cervical part of the oesophagus (end-to-end esophagogastrostomy) carried in the site of anterior mediastinum. Transmediastinal esophagectomy (m. Akiyama). 1. Chest is opened on the left and right side (more often on the right side, with the tumour in the upper and middle part of the oesophagus, and taking into consideration the aortic arch; more often on the left if the tumour is localized in the joint of the oesophagus and the stomach). 2. Incision in the sixth left intercostal area exposes anterior mediastinum. 3. Semicircular incision of the diaphragm, 1 inch from the costal arch, exposes upper part of abdomen. 4. Oesophagus is removed with perioesophageal nodes and nodes of lesser curvature of the stomach 5. Substitute is made mainly from stomach: a) with incision made on the right side, laparotomy is additionally performed in order to prepare stomach and to place in the site in the anterior mediastinum or in the retrosternal area, b) with incision made on the left side, stomach is pulled under the aortic arch and joined to cervical stump of the oesophagus. Esophagectomy en bloc. 1. It consists in excision of the tumour with a wide margin including surrounding structures in the background together with pleura and with pericardium in front. 2. Lymphatic vessels placed between the oesophagus, aorta and thoracic duct are excised en bloc. 3. Anterior mediastinum excision guarantees complete removal of nodes from the split of trachea to oesophageal hiatus. 4. Hepatic, visceral, left gastric nodes and nodes of lesser curvature of the stomach, parahiatal and retroperitoneal, which reduces the number of local post operational metastases to less than 10%. Esophagectomy en bloc with tripolar lymphadenectomy It consists in additional excision of cervical nodes.


Radiotherapy treatment consists in the use of highly energetic rays in order to destroy cancerous cells. Radiotherapy may be provided from an external or an internal source (brachytherapy, it consists in introduction of a pipe with radiating material into the inside diameter of the oesophagus). Radiotherapy may only be used  together with chemotherapy, as an alternative treatment method, if the stage of cancer or other factors do not allow to carry out a surgery. It can be used either alone or together with chemotherapy, before surgery is performed. In palliative treatment, radiotherapy also plays an important role.


Pharmaceutical treatment consists in anti-cancerous medicines use, usually administered intravenously affecting cancerous cells by circulation around/ in the body. It can be used together with radiotherapy, as an alternative way of treatment to surgery and preoperatively.

In the phase of controlled clinical tests, other ways of treatment are possible, such as laser therapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT).

Palliative treatment

Over 70% of the diagnosed patients cannot be qualified for surgical treatment because of the extensiveness of cancerous changes. Palliative treatment is intended to improve the general state of a patient, decrease ailment and difficulties   swallowing. The following methods are applied: Palliative resection Evasive connections – creation of a bridge evading a narrowing or a closure of the inside diameter of the oesophagus. Oesophageal prostheses. Gastric and intestinal fistula, including microfistula of small intestine – enabling feeding directly to the inside diameter of the intestine. Mechanical widening of the narrowing. Self-widening Stent’s mass. Laser therapy – a surgery consisting in introducing a fiberscope with a laser light into the oesophagus, with breaks lasting several days, which enables exfoliation of cells and widening of the inside diameter of the oesophagus. The most popular laser:  Nd Yag laser.

Breast Cancer Detection – Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer Detection – Early Detection of Breast Cancer

Breast cancer detection is crucial in finding and treating breast cancer. Many people simply react to the symptoms of breast cancer, which at that point is often too late.

Therefore it can make a life changing difference (literally) to be taught effective breast cancer detection techniques so that you stand the best possible chance of fighting the cancer from day one.

After all, most cancers can be cured when they are dealt with early enough.

One way is breast cancer screening. Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.

It is easier to treat the cancer patient when found in time. Early detection of breast cancer means that you can find breast cancer and start treating it before it has time to grow and spread.

The cure is very promising when finding breast cancer in its early stages. If you don’t get early screening for breast cancer and get the pain or symptoms of breast cancer then the cancer may have started to grow larger and even could have spread out beyond the breast. This is why early detection is so important in finding breast cancer at its earliest stage.

When breast cancer is found during early exams it is most likely to be in the breast and smaller in size, not having the time to grow larger and spread out beyond the breast. If it is found later on then it may have had the time to get larger and spread beyond the breast.

This can be prevented if you decide to get early detection for breast cancer. Early detection can find the cancer before it can grow larger in size causing more problems. The size of breast cancer that is detected and how much it has spread is how a doctor will determine the outlook for a patient.

Breast cancer detection can save many lives every year. If you go to get early screening and can get other people you know to get screened for breast cancer then you can help to save lives. Getting your loved ones and friends to get early screening may also help to save their lives.

Breast cancer that is detected early and treated at that time is more likely to be removed with success. It can improve your chances of being cured when found early. So it is important to get to your doctor when your reach a certain age to start getting early detection for breast cancer and understanding the many other ways you can practice breast cancer detection through professional advice.

What is Squamous Cell Skin Carcinoma Skin Cancer?

A squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer is a type of skin cancer that usually results from a long term sun damage or exposure to ultra-violet rays to the skin. Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer spreads gradually and also has the capacity to spread to tissues near the affected area such as the eye. The cancer can also spread to distant parts of the body in case, it is not treated on time.

The best and the only way to make sure if a skin growth is cancerous is to go for a biopsy. The process involves removal of a small section of the skin. Thereafter a pathologist analyzes it under the microscope in a medical laboratory.

Remember that a biopsy is not a process to remove cancer. It just works towards taking off the tip of the cancer.

In some cases the skin tends to heal once the biopsy is done as it grows over the cancer. However, this does not indicate that the cancer is removed completely. Here, the cancer is only covered with a blanket of skin. In case, the cancer is not removed fully, it can get deeper in to the skin and even metastasize to the internal organs of the body resulting in death of a human being.

Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer is known to be one of the most common forms of skin cancer. It is shocking but true that over 25,000 new cases have been reported in a year in the United States alone. The cancer originates from the squamous cells that are most of the portion of the upper layer of the skin.

All cases of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer are not serious. If detected early and treated promptly, one can easily survive this disease. However, if not treated properly, the disease can prove to be very hard to treat and can even result in disfigurement.

There are several causes of the origination of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer. Some of these include the following:

i) Frequent and long exposure to harmful sun rays. This result in severe skin damage and ultimately develop in to squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer.

ii) The damage to the skin done by sun is the most responsible factor for development of this type of cancer. The face is most exposed to sun and the cancer spreads to the other parts of the body.

iii) Light skinned people have greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer.

iv) People who have already developed this cancer are said to develop more.

Chronic exposure to the sun is the main cause of this type of cancer. The tumor invades to body parts such as face, neck, bald scalp, hands, shoulders, arms and back that are more exposed to sun. The lower lip and the rim of the ear are more vulnerable to these cancers.

Squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer may also develop due to certain types of injury such as scars, burns, long existing sores, sites exposed to X-rays or some harmful chemicals, such as arsenic of by-products of petroleum. Reduced immunity is also one of the main reasons for the spread of this type of cancer. Detect and treat early to stay away from possible damage and full recovery.

Cancer – It Is Not A Single Disease

Cancer is a serious issue. Not just today, it has been an issue for a long time, it is only with today’s technology that we have been able to diagnose with any form of accuracy. Cancer is, of all things, a disease of our cells, the main component that we are made from becomes ill, it is this that is known as cancer. In the event of cancer, what happens is that our cells grow and multiply in an uncontrollable rate. This is why radiation is used on cancer patients as the radiation basically kills the cells while the rest of the process focuses on fixing the abnormality that caused the uncontrollable growth rate.

When you hear the term cancerous, you may also her the term malignant. Malignancy and cancer is one in the same, they are just two different words with the same exact meaning, much like many words in the English dictionary. Benign however, is not cancer at all. A person can have a fibrous growth on the neck cause by the sun and heat that is not cancerous, it is just a cyst, and it is also known as a benign growth.

Cancer on the other hand is an entirely different ballgame. I used the term abnormality before, now I am going to describe this abnormality. It is not a single disease, but rather a grouping of over 100 diseases working together, but each with its own distinctive purpose. Cancer can form in any tissue in the body, when you hear the term the cancer is spreading; it will still be called the same cancer even if it has spread to another tissue type. It is dependant on where the cancer started when giving it a name.

Skin cancer is considered by far to be the most common type of cancer, while a thyroidal cancer is considered to be the least. However, these numbers are not entirely accurate, thyroidal cancer is the least common but only over 30,000 cases per year. There are many less common types of cancer but due to the lower number of yearly cases it may not be recorded accurately.

On top of this, many cancers are also classified together in groups like colon and rectal types of cancer are grouped as colorectal cancers. Further, cancers like kidney cancer can actually start in two different places and though the type of cancer may be different such as parenchyma and pelvic, the cancer is still classified as a cancer of the kidneys.

Many people are also fully aware of the type of cancer known as leukemia. Leukemia is a cancer of your blood and bone marrow (the source of your body’s blood production). In leukemia, your blood cells themselves become cancerous which then leads to all types of complications like the lack of an ability to clot blood due to bone marrow cells. It is this reason why many leukemia patients can easily bruise and if they get cut, it is harder to stop the flow.

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