Indigestion – What Causes Indigestion – Symptoms and Treatment Indigestion

What is indigestion  or dyspepsia ? Dyspepsia is one of the most common ailments of the bowel (intestines), affecting an estimated 20% of persons in the United States. Perhaps only 10% of More »

Suffering for Regular Sore Throat – Sore Throat Causes – Sore Throat Remedies & Treatments

Some of the sore throat remedies shared by individuals who tried home relief methods Joe: I know it sounds stupid but the little bottle of squeezable lemon juice that you can get More »

Skin Rashes, Skin Irritation – Are You Worried About Your Skin Ailments – Know Skin Rashes Remedies Cure

Definition: Skin Irritation- reaction to a particular irritant that results in inflammation of the skin and itchiness. Definition: Rash- A spotted, pink or red skin eruption that may be accompanied by itching More »

Health Insurance – Importance of Health Insurance – Health Insurance FAQs

Health Insurance is not just requirement to save money on medical expenses but a vital asset to have during contingent time. Do You Understand the Importance of Health Insurance? If you are More »

Laughing Helps, Laughing Cures – Laughter Is The Best Medicine – Laughter Prolongs Life

Laughter reduces pain, increases job performance, connects people emotionally, and improves the flow of oxygen to the heart and brain. Laughter, it’s said, is the best medicine. And there’s lots of evidence More »

Anxiety Disorders – Do You Get Easily Anxious – Symptoms, Prevention and Cure

It’s normal to feel anxious when facing a challenging situation, such as a job interview, a tough exam, sports, a blind date, first time pregnancy or a confrontation with a friend. But if your worries and fears seem overwhelming and interfere with your daily life, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder.

Before knowing prevention, you should know symptoms and disorders- emotional and physical

Do your symptoms indicate an anxiety disorder?

If you identify with several of the following signs and symptoms, and they just won’t go away, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder.

  • Are you constantly tense, worried, or on edge?
  • Does your anxiety interfere with your work, school, or family responsibilities?
  • Are you plagued by fears that you know are irrational, but can’t shake?
  • Do you believe that something bad will happen if certain things aren’t done a certain way?
  • Do you avoid everyday situations or activities because they cause you anxiety?
  • Do you experience sudden, unexpected attacks of heart-pounding panic?
  • Do you feel like danger and catastrophe are around every corner?


Other common emotional symptoms of anxiety include:

  • Feelings of apprehension or dread
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Feeling tense and jumpy
  • Anticipating the worst
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Watching for signs of danger
  • Feeling like your mind’s gone blank

 Common physical symptoms of anxiety include:

  • Pounding heart
  • Sweating
  • Stomach upset or dizziness
  • Frequent urination or diarrhea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tremors and twitches
  • Muscle tension
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia

 Symptoms of anxiety attacks include:

  • Surge of overwhelming panic
  • Feeling of losing control or going crazy
  • Heart palpitations or chest pain
  • Feeling like you’re going to pass out
  • Trouble breathing or choking sensation
  • Hyperventilation
  • Hot flashes or chills
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Nausea or stomach cramps
  • Feeling detached or unreal

Screaming in Anxiety Never Helps

How To tackle anxiety amicably

Self-help for anxiety attacks and anxiety disorders

#1: Challenge negative thoughts

  • Write down your worries. Keep a pad and pencil on you, or type on a laptop, smartphone, or tablet. When you experience anxiety, write down your worries. Writing down is harder work than simply thinking them, so your negative thoughts are likely to disappear sooner.
  • Create an anxiety worry period. Choose one or two 10 minute “worry periods” each day, time you can devote to anxiety. During your worry period, focus only on negative, anxious thoughts without trying to correct them. The rest of the day, however, is to be designated free of anxiety. When anxious thoughts come into your head during the day, write them down and “postpone” them to your worry period.
  • Accept uncertainty. Unfortunately, worrying about all the things that could go wrong doesn’t make life any more predictable—it only keeps you from enjoying the good things happening in the present. Learn to accept uncertainty and not require immediate solutions to life’s problems.
  • Self-help for anxiety attacks and anxiety disorders #2: Take care of yourself
  • Practice relaxation techniques. When practiced regularly, relaxation techniques such as mindfulness meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, and deep breathing can reduce anxiety symptoms and increase feelings of relaxation and emotional well-being.
  • Adopt healthy eating habits. Start the day right with breakfast, and continue with frequent small meals throughout the day. Going too long without eating leads to low blood sugar, which can make you feel more anxious.
  • Reduce alcohol and nicotine. They lead to more anxiety, not less.
  • Exercise regularly. Exercise is a natural stress buster and anxiety reliever. To achieve the maximum benefit, aim for at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise on most days.
  • Get enough sleep. A lack of sleep can exacerbate anxious thoughts and feelings, so try to get 7 to 9 hours of quality sleep a night.

Be Calm in Pregnancy. Consult Gynecologist.

If you’re experiencing a lot of physical anxiety symptoms, consider getting a medical checkup. Your doctor can check to make sure that your anxiety isn’t caused by a medical condition, such as a thyroid problem, hypoglycemia, or asthma. Since certain drugs and supplements can cause anxiety, your doctor will also want to know about any prescriptions, over-the-counter medications, herbal remedies, and recreational drugs you’re taking.

If your physician rules out a medical cause, the next step is to consult with a therapist who has experience treating anxiety attacks and anxiety disorders. The therapist will work with you to determine the cause and type of your anxiety disorder and devise a course of treatment.


Article credit: Melinda Smith, M.A., Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D. for

Indigestion – What Causes Indigestion – Symptoms and Treatment Indigestion


What is indigestion  or dyspepsia ?
Dyspepsia is one of the most common ailments of the bowel (intestines), affecting an estimated 20% of persons in the United States. Perhaps only 10% of those affected actually seek medical attention for their dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is not a particularly good term for the ailment since it implies that there is “dyspepsia” or abnormal digestion of food, and this most probably is not the case. In fact, another common name for dyspepsia is indigestion, which, for the same reason, is no better than the term dyspepsia! Doctors frequently refer to the condition as non-ulcer dyspepsia.

Dyspepsia (indigestion) is best described as a functional disease. (Sometimes, it is called functional dyspepsia.) The concept of functional disease is particularly useful when discussing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The concept applies to the muscular organs of the gastrointestinal tract-esophagus, stomach, small intestine, gallbladder, and colon. What is meant by the term, functional, is that either the muscles of the organs or the nerves that control the organs are not working normally, and, as a result, the organs do not function normally. The nerves that control the organs include not only the nerves that lie within the muscles of the organs but also the nerves of the spinal cord and brain.

Some gastrointestinal diseases can be seen and diagnosed with the naked eye, such as ulcers of the stomach. Thus, ulcers can be seen at surgery, on x-rays, and and by endoscopy. Other diseases cannot be seen with the naked eye but can be seen and diagnosed under the microscope. For example, gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) is diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsies of the stomach. In contrast, gastrointestinal functional diseases cannot be seen with the naked eye or with the microscope. In some instances, the abnormal function can be demonstrated by tests (for example, gastric emptying studies or antro-duodenal motility studies). However, the tests often are complex, are not widely available, and do not reliably detect the functional abnormalities. Accordingly, and by default, functional gastrointestinal diseases are those that involve abnormal function of gastrointestinal organs in which the abnormalities cannot be seen in the organs with either the naked eye or the microscope.

Occasionally, diseases that are thought to be functional are ultimately found to be associated with abnormalities that can be seen. Then, the disease moves out of the functional category. An example of this would be Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Some patients with mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms who were thought to have abnormal function of the stomach or intestines have been found to have stomachs infected with H. pylori. This infection can be diagnosed under the microscope by identifying the bacterium. When patients are treated with antibiotics, the H. pylori and symptoms disappear. Thus, recognition of infections with Helicobacter pylori has removed some patients’ systems from the functional disease category.

The distinction between functional disease and non-functional disease may, in fact, be blurry. Thus, even functional diseases probably have associated biochemical or molecular abnormalities that ultimately will be able to be measured. For example, functional diseases of the stomach and intestines may be shown ultimately to be associated with reduced or increased levels of normal chemicals within the gastrointestinal organs, the spinal cord, or the brain. Should a disease that is demonstrated to be due to a reduced or increased chemical still be considered a functional disease? I think not. In this theoretical situation, we can’t see the abnormality with the naked eye or the microscope, but we can measure it. If we can measure an associated or causative abnormality, the disease probably should no longer be considered functional.

Despite the shortcomings of the term, functional, the concept of a functional abnormality is useful for approaching many of the symptoms originating from the muscular organs of the gastrointestinal tract. To repeat, this concept applies to those symptoms for which there are no associated abnormalities that can be seen with the naked eye or the microscope.

indigestion-cureWhile dyspepsia is a major functional disease(s), it is important to mention several other functional diseases. A second major functional disease is the irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS. The symptoms of IBS are thought to originate primarily from the small intestine and/or colon. The symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain that is accompanied by alterations in bowel movements (defecation), primarily constipation or diarrhea. In fact, dyspepsia and IBS may be overlapping diseases since up to half of patients with IBS also have symptoms of dyspepsia. A third distinct functional disorder is non-cardiac chest pain. This pain may mimic heart pain (angina), but it is unassociated with heart disease. In fact, non-cardiac chest pain is thought to result from a functional abnormality of the esophagus.

Functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract often are categorized by the organ of involvement. Thus, there are functional disorders of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and gallbladder. The amount of research that has been done with functional disorders is greatest in the esophagus and stomach (for example, non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia), perhaps because these organs are easiest to reach and study. Research into functional disorders affecting the small intestine and colon (IBS) is more difficult to conduct and there is less agreement among the research studies. This probably is a reflection of the complexity of the activities of the small intestine and colon and the difficulty in studying these activities. Functional diseases of the gallbladder (referred to as biliary dyskinesia), like those of the small intestine and colon, also are more difficult to study, and at present they are less well-defined. Each of the functional diseases is associated with its own set of characteristic symptoms.

Indigestion: causes symptoms treatment

Indigestion is not a disease but maybe a sign or symptom of a disease. Around 20 percent of the American population suffers from this medical condition, and often stomach upsets are relieved on its own.
Below are the common symptoms which may indicate you are suffering from bouts of indigestion:

  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Burning feeling in the abdomen
  3. Heartburn
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting
  6. Belching
  7. Abdominal Bloating
  8. Flatulence

Indigestion Facts and misconceptions
Gas is often passed out through flatulence or belching because of the increased acid production in the stomach. Introduction of food in the stomach increases acid production.  With this in mind, people found to be suffering from ulcers are advised to take frequent light meals instead of the normal three heavy meals. One misconception is that eating food alleviates the pain in ulcers when it fact it increases acid production.

Indigestion and heartburn are often interchanged. Indigestion is usually a symptom of heartburn (GERD). However, indigestion is an entirely different medical condition.

Causes of indigestion or stomach upset are overeating and eating types of foods which may not agree with your stomach. People may have eaten something which may have been undercooked, steaks which may be rare or medium rare for example. Some types of foods make the stomach work twice as hard, making it difficult for the stomach to break them down. Other people may have problems eating certain types of foods which cause increased acid production.

Pregnancy can also cause indigestion. Pregnant women are advised to eat small frequent meals because of their condition. The developing baby exerts pressure on the stomach. When heavy meals are taken, normal stomach expansion does not happen because of the baby’s presence.

Overeating also causes indigestion. There is just too much food so that your stomach can not digest everything. Meals which are not taken at regular times also cause indigestion.

Psychological factors such as stress can also cause indigestion. Smoking and drinking alcohol also cause stomach upsets. Cigarettes and alcohol contain chemicals which may irritate the stomach and cause people to suffer indigestion.

For people suffering from chronic indigestion or those which lasts for days and accompanied by other symptoms, it is important that they consult their doctors for medication. Indigestion is one of the most common symptoms for digestive deseases and disorders.

Dyspepsia maybe classified as organic or functional. The two types are differentiated by the factors which cause indigestion.

Organic Dyspepsia:
Dyspepsia is classified as organic when the medical condition is a result of a medical disease or known cause. Common causes include diseases such as chronic peptic ulcer, chronic pancreatitis, gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), gallstones and other major digestive diseases.

Functional Dyspepsia:
Indigestion or dyspepsia is classified as functional when the factors which cause it are unknown or undefined. Indigestion maybe caused by abnormal motor functions which interfere with the normal digestive process. Examples of these may be psychological in nature, such as stress or other factors such as smoking. Older people are also more susceptible with bouts of indigestion, as normal digestive system movements or peristalsis decrease with age.

Treatment of Indigestion
Although stomach upsets or indigestion are often treated by simple medications such as antacids, people suffering from chronic indigestion should consult their doctors as frequent indigestion might be a symptom of a more complicated disease.

An ounce of prevention is always better than a pound of cure; it is definitely more economical too. Indigestion is a fairly common medical condition which is caused by simple lifestyle habits. Understanding which types of food don’t agree with your stomach can go a long way in preventing indigestion.

indigestion-symptomsKnowing your limits in terms of the amount of food eaten and the alcohol consumed can reduce the amount of acids produced by the stomach. Learning to eat meals at regular intervals and avoiding stressful situations could reduce instances of upset stomachs. Resting after eating is one way of avoiding indigestion, letting your body undergo the process of digestion before exercising and working is also advised.

Taking medications such as antacids which reduces acidity in the stomach provides relief from discomforts suffered from indigestion. Antacids don’t reduce the production of acids in the stomach but they neutralize its acidity. This is similar to adding sugar in coffee to reduce its bitter taste.

Next to the common cold, stomach upsets are one of the major reasons why people miss work or school. Indigestion or stomach upset is common, and it is often seen after taking in large meals during celebrations and holidays.

Stomach upset or indigestion are terms that have been used to describe many symptoms associated with digestive conditions. Stomach upsets are so common that they are often dismissed as simple colds or fever. But unlike colds and fevers, when bouts of indigestion continue for long periods of time they might signal that a person is suffering from a more serious medical condition.

Eating right and having regular meals during the day could go a long way in preventing indigestion. When holidays come and for sure they will, it is always important to remember to eat in moderation. Other factors such as stress and smoking have also been discovered as contributing factors to indigestion. Smoking and drinking is a personal choice we make, but drinking too much and smoking has been discovered to cause serious medical diseases.

What Are the Symptoms of Indigestion?

Recalling The symptoms again of indigestion include:

  1. Bloating (full feeling)
  2. Belching and gas
  3. Nausea and vomiting
  4. Acidic taste
  5. Growling stomach
  6. Burning in the stomach or upper abdomen
  7. Abdominal pain

These symptoms may increase in times of stress.

People often have heartburn (a burning sensation deep in the chest) along with indigestion. But heartburn is caused by stomach acids rising into the esophagus.
Who Is at Risk for Indigestion?

People of all ages and of both sexes are affected by indigestion. It’s extremely common. An individual’s risk increases with excess alcohol consumption, use of drugs that may irritate the stomach (such as aspirin), other conditions where there is an abnormality in the digestive tract such as an ulcer and emotional problems such as anxiety or depression.
What Causes Indigestion?

Indigestion has many causes, including:

  1. Diseases:
  2. Ulcers
  3. GERD
  4. Stomach cancer (rare)
  5. Gastroparesis (a condition where the stomach doesn’t empty properly; this often occurs in diabetics)
  6. Stomach infections
  7. Irritable bowel syndrome
  8. Chronic pancreatitis
  9. Thyroid disease


  • Aspirin and many other painkillers
  • Estrogen and oral contraceptives
  • Steroid medications
  • Certain antibiotics
  • Thyroid medicines


  • Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Stress and fatigue

Swallowing excessive air when eating may increase the symptoms of belching and bloating, which are often associated with indigestion.

Sometimes people have persistent indigestion that is not related to any of these factors. This type of indigestion is called functional, or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

During the middle and later parts of pregnancy, many women have indigestion. This is believed to be caused by a number of pregnancy-related factors including hormones, which relax the muscles of the digestive tract, and the pressure of the growing uterus on the stomach.

How Is Indigestion Diagnosed?
If you are experiencing symptoms of indigestion, make an appointment to see your doctor to rule out a more serious condition. Because indigestion is such a broad term, it is helpful to provide your doctor with a precise description of the discomfort you are experiencing. In describing your indigestion symptoms, try to define where in the abdomen the discomfort usually occurs. Simply reporting pain in the stomach is not detailed enough for your doctor to help identify and treat your problem.

First, your doctor must rule out any underlying conditions. Your doctor may perform several blood tests and you may have X-rays of the stomach or small intestine. Your doctor may also use an instrument to look closely at the inside of the stomach, a procedure called an upper endoscopy. An endoscope, a flexible tube that contains a light and a camera to produce images from inside the body, is used in this procedure.

What Causes Acid Reflux- Acid Reflux Symptoms and Treatments


What Is Acid Reflux? What Causes Acid Reflux?
The word “reflux” comes from the Medieval Latin word refluxus which comes from the Latin word refluere, meaning “to flow back, to recede”. If you suffer from acid reflux the acids from your stomach “flow back” into your esophagus, causing discomfort and pain – this discomfort is known as heartburn.

What is the esophagus?
In simple terms, the esophagus is the tube between the stomach and the pharynx, which is at the back of your throat. According to Medilexicon’s Medical Dictionary, “the esophagus is the portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25-cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.”

The esophageal sphincter

The esophageal sphincter lies at the junction where the stomach and the esophagus join. Your stomach produces strong acids and enzymes (gastric juices) which are used in food digestion. The inner lining of your stomach has several mechanisms to protect itself from the effect of the gastric juices on itself, but the lining of the esophagus does not. There is a valve that stops the gastric juices from going up the esophagus – it is called the lower esophageal sphincter.

When the lower esophageal sphincter becomes weakened gastric juices can seep upwards into the esophagus.

Most of us have acid reflux problems now and again. In majority of cases this is harmless. If the problem becomes persistent and goes untreated, the heartburn can develop into GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease). In chronic and severe cases the esophagus can become scarred – the patient may have difficulty swallowing, and the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus increases significantly.

What is the difference between acid reflux and heartburn?
Acid reflux is the action, while heartburn is the sensation. The pain is heartburn, while the movement of acid into the esophagus from the stomach is acid reflux.

What are the symptoms of acid reflux?

  1. Asthma – gastric juices seep upwards into the throat, mouth and air passages of the lungs
  2. Chest pain – part of the heartburn sensation
  3. Dental erosion
  4. Dysphagia – difficulty swallowing
  5. Heartburn – a burning feeling rising from the stomach or lower chest towards the neck
  6. Hoarseness
  7. Regurgitation – bringing food back up into the mouth

What causes acid reflux?

Acid reflux commonly occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) does not work properly, and allows acid to seep upwards from the stomach to the esophagus. Although we know that a faulty LES is a common cause, we are not sure why it becomes faulty. One of many reasons could be that pressure in the stomach rises higher than the LES can withstand.

Here are some common causes of acid reflux:

Pregnancy - more commonly found during the third trimester of a pregnancy. As the growing baby presses on the stomach, contents may back up into the esophagus. Doctors say antacids will not relieve acid reflux caused by pregnancy. Patients find that if they eat smaller meals but eat more meals per day, it helps. In the vast majority of cases the acid reflux will disappear soon after the baby is born.

Large meals and eating habits - people who have large meals will usually find that their acid reflux will improve if they cut down portion sizes. Patients who kept a food diary, noting down everything they ate and linking certain foods to incidences of acid reflux, have experienced a reduction in acid reflux.

Bending forward - this movement will not usually cause acid reflux unless there is another underlying trigger or problem.

Hiatus hernia (hiatal hernia) -
a condition where the upper part of the stomach protrudes into the chest through a small opening in the diaphragm. Hiatal hernias are commonly caused by severe coughing, vomiting, straining, sudden physical exertion, pregnancy, and obesity.

Peptic ulcers and insufficient digestive enzymes -
peptic ulcers and not enough digestive enzymes in the stomach may slow down the digestive process, causing an accumulation of gastric acids that back up into the esophagus.

Asthma -
experts still argue about which came first, the asthma or the acid reflux – did the asthma cause the acid reflux or did the acid reflux cause the asthma? Nobody has a definite answer to the relationship between asthma and acid reflux. Some say that the coughing and sneezing brought on by asthmatic attacks can cause changes in the chest which trigger acid reflux. Others blame asthma medications – they are taken to dilate the airways, but might also relax the esophageal sphincter.

Most asthma sufferers say that their asthma is worsened by acid reflux because the acid that seeps into the esophagus from the stomach stimulates the nerves along the neck into the chest, causing bronchial constriction and breathing problems.

Smoking - research has shown that the saliva of smokers contain lower levels of bicarbonates, which neutralize acids. Cigarette smoking also reduces the production of saliva. Smoking also stimulates the production of stomach acid, weakens the esophageal sphincter, promotes the movement of bile salts from the intestine to the stomach (making the acids more harmful), and slows down digestion (making stomach pressure last longer because it takes more time to empty).

Alcohol - patients have commented that quitting alcohol, or cutting down consumption significantly improved their symptoms.

What is the treatment for acid reflux?


The vast majority of people with acid reflux will get better if they make some changes to their diet. Some foods are safe for heartburn sufferers, while others are major triggers of it.

It would be easy to say that there is a reflux diet. Unfortunately, we all react differently to different foods.

Below is a list of foods/drinks that commonly cause irritation and/or heartburn:
Black pepper
Chili and chili powder
Citrus fruit, pineapple
Spicy food
Tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato juice, ketchup

Some patients with acid reflux say these gassy foods cause discomfort:
Brussel Sprouts
Fizzy drinks (sodas)


Acid suppressant - these have been shown to be effective, such as histamine2-receptor antagonists (blockers). Histamines are good at reducing inflammation. An inflamed stomach produces more acid – blocking this extra production of acid helps prevent the acids from building up and seeping upwards.

Propton pump inhibitors -
these reduce the production of acid in the stomach. They act on cells in the stomach wall and produce stomach acids.

Prokinetic agents -
these promote the emptying of the stomach, stopping it from becoming overfull.

Antiacids –
commonly used to treat mild acid-related symptoms, such as heartburn or indigestion. They neutralize the acids in the stomach. These are not recommended for frequent heartburn for patients with GERD.

How Acid Reflux Occurs

Acid Reflux occurs when the tube that you uses to intake the food from the throat to stomach is not strong enough to handle the acid. The food intaken by you is digested by the stomach with the help of an acid produced and stored by it.  The stomach walls are built strong enough to store that acid without causing damage.

For unknown reasons when acid flows back into the oesophagus from stomach it creates heartburn, which is widely considered the first symptom of acid reflux or GERD.  It leaves a constant chest burning sensation.  You may find these acid reflux symptoms occurring to everyone once in a while, but when it happens regularly over a period of 2 to 3 times in a week with no visible relief even after medication, then you have acid reflux or GERD.  A change in diet intake can give you relief to an extent from acid reflux attack, but if it reoccurs then one needs medical attention.

The main cause of acid reflux attack is when the lower oeasophageal sphinter which is a divider between stomach and oeasophagus giving up at inappropriate times, thereby not blocking the entry of acid into easophagus.  This stomach acid when flows back into the easophagus, it causs severe heartburn right in between the chest.

acid-reflux-foodsHow is acid reflux disease diagnosed?
It’s time to see your doctor if you have acid reflux symptoms two or more times a week or if medications don’t bring lasting relief. Symptoms such as heartburn are the key to the diagnosis of acid reflux disease, especially if lifestyle changes, antacids, or acid-blocking medications help reduce these symptoms.

If these steps don’t help or if you have frequent or severe symptoms, your doctor may order tests to confirm a diagnosis and check for other problems. You may need one or more tests such as these:

  1. Barium swallow (esophagram) can check for ulcers or a narrowing of the esophagus. You first swallow a solution to help structures show up on an X-ray.
  2. Esophageal manometry can check the function of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter.
  3. pH monitoring can check for acid in your esophagus. The doctor inserts a device into your esophagus and leaves it in place for one to two days to measure the amount of acid in your esophagus.
  4. Endoscopy can check for problems in your esophagus or stomach. This test involves inserting a long, flexible, lighted tube down your throat. First, the doctor will spray the back of your throat with anesthetic and give you a sedative to make you more comfortable.
  5. A biopsy may be taken during endoscopy to check samples of tissue under a microscope for infection or abnormalities.

The worst case scenario in Acid Reflux

If not treated appropriately, acid reflux attack for a prolonged period can wear out the inner protective lining of oeasophagus.  Doctors call this erosive oesophagitis.  A doctor can find out whether you have this condition through a simple endoscopy.  He can also treat you for this acid reflux condition depending on the extent of damage.

There are a lot of advices out there for people who suffer from acid reflux or heartburn about what they should not do. There are always a bunch of food items you are not supposed to eat. Here we are discussing a few things you can do and reduce your acid reflux problem.

It is known to be beneficial to sleep on the left side of your stomach than your right side. Sleeping on you left side is better for you not to experience acid reflux symptoms like heartburn.

If you make it a habit to sleep with your head in an elevated position that would reduce heartburn during your sleep. This can be achieved using one or two extra pillows.  If you can afford it, getting a bed that can be raised, a bed similar to the ones used in hospitals would be a great idea. If not, you can raise the head side of your bed with blocks of wood or some thing similar.

Eat any time you feel like eating. But make it very small portions. If you skip food in between for so long, you will end up eating a big meal in the end and it is going to cause the worsening of your acid reflux condition. Any person who tries to avoid meals in between for whatever reasons may end up over filling your stomach when you finally have food. This must be avoided at all cost.

In between meals, it would be helpful to you make it a habit of chewing gums. This would create a lot of saliva in your mouth and this can wash down any left over acids from your esophagus and throat. Saliva is alkaline in nature and is going to neutralize the acids to some extent. When choosing chewing gums avoid mint flavored ones. Mint is known to worsen acid reflux condition in many people.

Instead of chewing gums, you can suck on cough drops like halls or antacids, and they will provide you with the same effect.

Drinking water can dilute the stomach acids and can be helpful in reducing your heartburn condition.

It is an absolute no no to hit the bed right after a big meal. You need to walk for a little while before you go to sleep. The ideal case is to sleep only four hours after having your dinner. So have your dinner earlier around 5 or 6 O’clock, as was the practice of yesteryears.

Natural Antacids To Treat Acid Reflux

It is better to take natural antacids instead of the synthetic antacids available over the counter. Most of the time these natural foods which work as antacids are available in your home. So they may cost you less compared to the store bought antacids.

There are a few foods that reduce the stomach acid levels. These are natural antacid foods. But all the natural antacid foods may not work for your situation. So you will have to try and see which ones work for you in reducing stomach acids. You should find the best antacid that works for you.

You should also consider your general health condition and your other health problems when introducing these natural antacid foods in your diet.

  1. Dietary fiber – increasing dietary fiber can reduce heartburn for many people.
  2. Banana – banana works for many as it is a natural antacid food. But do consult your doctor as bananas are high in potassium.
  3. Milk – milk is a natural antacid drink. A glass of milk soothes the stomach. Cold milk is better but warm milk also works well before bed time. But before you try milk as antacid, make sure that you do not have allergy to dairy products.
  4. Ice cream – ice cream, being a milk product, is a natural antacid food. Be careful about the flavor you choose. Vanilla is better than chocolate or peppermint. Again, make sure you do not have allergy to dairy products.
  5. Yogurt – yogurt helps in heartburn because of the active culture. The healthy bacteria is useful in the digestive tract to breakdown foods for digestion.

Good News for Acid Reflux patients
Acid Reflux is a medical condition which if diagnosed in time can be treated.  Contact your doctor or contact  for further advise and guidance on overcoming your acid reflux condition.

Suffering for Regular Sore Throat – Sore Throat Causes – Sore Throat Remedies & Treatments

Some of the sore throat remedies shared by individuals who tried home relief methods

Joe: I know it sounds stupid but the little bottle of squeezable lemon juice that you can get from the grocery store helps me the best. you have to let it just shoot back in your throat don’t even swallow, i know its hard at first cause you really want to swallow it yourself but you cant. Do this like 3 times and your throat shouldn’t hurt at all. It really helps

Karen: TCP Just do what it say’s on the bottle (dilute it) was advised by an elite athlete !
After using it twice my sore throat has gone,i,m still using it just to be on the safe side,might not taste nice but just hold your nose and gargle,Hope it works for you

John: Simply gargle with warm salt water, it worked immediately for me. Its very inexpensive too.

Sira: Using your back molars chew 2 asprin, one on either side of your mouth and let the aspirin slowly dissolve in your throat. Helps receive pain associated with sore throats and swollen glands. Make sure its aspirin

Govie: I have found that salt and vinegar chips and hot milk with honey really help with sore throats :)

Greg: If you feel that you might have a sore throat and flu coming along; don’t wait to the last minute and try this. Look for a herbal tea that has echinacea, lemon, peppermint in it. Now once you have soaked the water with the tea bag you want to add one to two teaspoons of honey, and mix till it dissolves. They next thing to add is some lemon into the tea(if you only have lemon juice that will work and only put two squirts in.) cut lemon and half and then the half into another half. squeeze the lemon juice into the tea and make sure to mix it in well. The tea won’t be that pleasing with the lemon, but it helps(you don’t have to put lemon, if you don’t want to.) You can use through out the day, and at night have a tea of NeoCitran. You will be sure to get rid of what is coming, or get better faster.

Martha: Eat as much as you can of a raw onion; It sounds weird and deff does not taste good; but it works! I usually have about 4 penny sized amounts, it soothes my throat instantly!

Crush 2 aspirin and add them to warm salt water, and gargle.

Hireth: Sore throat remedy!!!!!!this one works immediately
ITS A TEA!!!!!!
I found green tea and blueberry pomegranate tea bags. I decided to combine these for extra antibiotics and taste.

-boil or heat up water and add green tea and blueberry pomegranate tea bags(optional)
-stir up and add some sugar and lots of honey
-add about 3 dashes of ground ginger
-even add some mint(optional)
-a little bit of lemon juice(help with mucus)
-add 2 dashes of salt

Drink hot or even over ice (ice not while suffering even with cold)

Now let us know sore throat more closely.

It’s scratchy, tender and swollen, and you dread the simple task of swallowing. But you must swallow, and when you do, you brace yourself for the unavoidable pain.

If you’ve got a sore throat, you’re in good company; everybody gets them, and 40 million people trek to the doctor’s office for treatment every year.

The mechanics of a sore throat are pretty simple. It’s an inflammation of the pharynx, which is the tube that extends from the back of the mouth to the esophagus. The leading causes of your discomfort are:

Viral infections, like colds or the flu. Often accompanied by fever, achy muscles and runny nose, viral infections can’t be cured, but their symptoms can be treated. A sore throat from a viral source will generally disappear on its own within several days.

Bacterial infection, especially from streptococcal bacteria (strep throat). Symptoms are much like those of a viral infection but may be more severe and long lasting. Often a bacterial infection is accompanied by headache, stomachache and swollen glands in the neck. A strep infection is generally treated with antibiotics because permanent heart or kidney damage can result. Culturing the bacteria is the only way a doctor can determine the cause of the sore throat.

While those are the primary reasons for a sore throat, there are others, including:

  • Smoking
  • Acid reflux
  • Allergies
  • Dry air, especially at night when you may sleep with your mouth open
  • Mouth breathing
  • Throat abuse: singing, shouting, coughing
  • Polyps or cancer
  • Infected tonsils
  • Food allergy


A sore throat can be a minor but annoying ailment, or it can be a symptom of a serious illness. Causes range from a stuffy nose or a cold to strep throat, a bacterial throat infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Since untreated strep throat can lead to rheumatic fever and scarlet fever, it’s important to get medical help as early as possible into the illness. Along with producing severe soreness in your gullet, strep throat may be accompanied by fever, body aches and pains and malaise.

Sore Throat Remedies:

1: Keep Your Nasal Passages Clear

Doctors agree that two of the most common causes of sore-throat pain are postnasal drip and a dry throat that results from sleeping with your mouth open when your nasal passages are blocked.

Decongestants, especially those containing pseudoephedrine (read package labels), may be helpful in stopping the flow; follow package directions carefully. Using saline nasal spray can help make breathing easier promptly though temporarily, and it’s probably worth investing in a humidifier to run in your bedroom at night.

2: Rest and Take It Easy

Common sense dictates staying in bed or at least resting when a sore throat’s got you down. Taking it easy leaves more energy to fight the infection. If your sore throat doesn’t require medical attention, rest will help get you back on the road to recovery.

3: Gargle

Gargle raspberry tea. Raspberry leaf tea can make a great gargle. (To make, pour 1 cup boiling water over 2 teaspoons dried leaves. Steep for 10 minutes, then strain. Allow to cool.) If you also have a fever, the gargle can be used as a fever-reducing drink, too. Do not drink any liquid you have used as a gargle.

Gargle with sage. This curative herb is a great sore-throat gargle. Mix 1 teaspoon in 1 cup boiling water. Steep for 10 minutes, then strain. Add 1 teaspoon each cider vinegar and honey, then gargle four times a day.

Gargle with turmeric. Try this gargle to calm a cranky throat. Mix together 1 cup hot water, 1/2 teaspoon turmeric and 1/2 teaspoon salt. Gargle with the mixture twice a day. If you’re not good with the gargle, mix 1/2 teaspoon turmeric in 1 cup hot milk and drink. Turmeric stains clothing, so be careful when mixing and gargling.

Gargle with warm saltwater. If you can gargle without gagging, make a saline solution by adding 1/2 teaspoon salt to a cup of very warm water. Yes, when your mother told you to gargle with saltwater, she knew what she was talking about. It cuts phlegm and reduces inflammation. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon salt in 1/2 cup warm water, and gargle every three to four hours.

Gargle with Listerine. Another good gargling fluid is Listerine mouthwash. If you share the product with anyone else in your household, don’t drink straight from the bottle; instead, pour a small amount into a cup (and don’t share that, either).

4: Drink Cider Vinegar

This sore throat cure is found in several different remedies. Some doctors still swear that it is surprisingly palatable and works wonders. (Do not give it — or any other honey-containing food or beverage — to children under two years of age. Honey can carry a bacterium that can cause a kind of food poisoning called infant botulism and may also cause allergic reactions in very young children.)

1 tablespoon honey, any kind
1 tablespoon vinegar, preferably apple-cider vinegar
8 ounces hot water

Mix all the ingredients together in a mug and sip slowly (but don’t let it get cold). Use as often as desired.

For gargling: You’ll need 1 teaspoon salt, 1/2 cup cider vinegar, and 1 cup warm water. Dissolve the salt in the vinegar, then mix in the water. Gargle every 15 minutes as necessary.

5: Make a Horseradish Cocktail

Try this Russian sore-throat cure. Combine 1 tablespoon pure horseradish or horseradish root with 1 teaspoon honey and 1 teaspoon ground cloves. Mix in a glass of warm water and drink slowly.

6: Use Citrus

Sip lemon juice. Mix 1 tablespoon each of honey and lemon juice in 1 cup warm water and sip away.

Drink lime juice. Combine 1 spoonful with a spoonful of honey and take as often as needed for a sore throat.

7: Take an Analgesic

Plain old aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen can do wonders for sore-throat pain. However, aspirin shouldn’t be given to children under the age of 19 because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a potentially fatal condition. Pregnant and nursing women should check with their doctor before taking any medication. For a list of precautions to take when using over-the-counter analgesics, click here.

8: Eat a Juice Bar

Juice bars are cold and soothing to a hot throat. Don’t suck, though. Sucking may irritate the throat even more. Simply let small pieces melt in your mouth.

9: Drink Hot Liquids

Especially if you’re not good at gargling, drink hot fluids, such as coffee, tea or hot lemonade. Coating the tissue in your throat with warm liquid provides a benefit similar to applying hot packs to infected skin. (And sipping hot tea is more pleasant than trying to swallow a hot pack.)

To make a soothing tea, use a spoonful of marjoram steeped in a cup of boiling water for 10 minutes. Strain, then sweeten to taste with honey.

10: Grab Some Hard Candy

Think of a sore throat as an excuse to indulge your sweet tooth, since some doctors say that sugar can help soothe a sore throat and the ticklish cough that may come with it. If nothing else, sucking on hard candy — in the sugar-free variety — can help keep your mouth and throat moist, which will make you feel more comfortable.

sore-throathealthpad.info11: Steam It Out

One old-fashioned remedy for a cold or sore throat is a steam tent — sitting with your face over a bowl of steaming hot water and your head covered with a towel to keep the steam in. Adding 1 to 2 drops eucalyptus oil can be soothing.

While it’s easy to dismiss such a simple measure as an old wives’ tale, several scientific studies have shown that steaming can actually shorten the duration of a throat infection.

12: Keep the Fluids Coming

Drink as much fluid as possible — at least eight to 10 8-ounce glasses per day. Keeping your throat well lubricated with soothing liquids can prevent it from becoming dry and irritated and may even help banish the infection faster.

13: Suck on Garlic

This Amish remedy can treat or prevent sore throats. Peel a fresh clove, slice it in half, and place 1 piece in each cheek. Suck on the garlic like a cough drop. Occasionally, crush your teeth against the garlic, not to bite it in half, but to release its allicin, a chemical that can kill the bacteria that causes strep.

14: Spray It

Analgesic sprays, such as Chloraseptic, may be effective in temporarily relieving sore-throat pain. The only problem is that the effect doesn’t last long. You may have to spray several times an hour. However, the sprays won’t harm you and may take the edge off an extremely painful throat.

Also, when treating a sore throat, nix the colas and scratchy foods, such as chips and pretzels. They’ll irritate an already irritated throat.

For more information, see our main Home Remedies page and Herbal Remedies for Sore Throat.

More sore throat remedies

• Honey has long been used as a sore-throat remedy. It has antibacterial properties, which can help speed healing. It also acts as a hypertonic osmotic, which means that it draws water out of inflamed tissue. This reduces the swelling and discomfort. Add several teaspoons to 1 cup of hot water or herbal tea.

• Hot lemonade with honey can also relieve pain. Combine the juice of half a lemon with hot water.

• Horehound reduces the swelling of inflamed throat tissue. It also thins mucus, which makes it easier for you to clear it from your throat. To make the tea, steep 2 teaspoons chopped herb in 1 cup boiling water for 10 minutes; strain and drink.

• Slippery elm contains mucilage that coats the throat and eases the soreness. Steep 1 teaspoon of the inner bark in 2 cups boiling water, strain and drink.

• Like slippery elm bark, marshmallow root (Althea officinalis) contains throat-coating mucilage. To make the tea, steep 2 teaspoons dried herb in 1 cup boiling water for 10 minutes; strain and drink. Drink three to five cups a day to help a sore throat.

• Take vitamin C three times a day. Whether your sore throat is caused by a cold, the flu or strep, this vitamin will help boost your immune system and fight off infection. Reduce the dose if you develop diarrhea.

• Echinacea. This herb’s antibacterial and antiviral properties will speed healing.

• Garlic, as another aid to fight off infection. Dried garlic has potent antibacterial and antiseptic properties.

• Zinc lozenge. In one study, people who sucked on a lozenge containing about 13 milligrams of zinc every two hours got rid of viral sore throats three to four days quicker than those who didn’t. But too much zinc can actually compromise immunity, which is why you shouldn’t take the lozenges for a long time.

Skin Rashes, Skin Irritation – Are You Worried About Your Skin Ailments – Know Skin Rashes Remedies Cure

Definition: Skin Irritation- reaction to a particular irritant that results in inflammation of the skin and itchiness.

Definition: Rash- A spotted, pink or red skin eruption that may be accompanied by itching and is caused by disease, contact with an allergen, food ingestion, or drug reaction.

Rashes and Skin Irritation: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments?

Skin irritation is a general term that can refer to a number of skin problems, including lesions, redness and itchiness. Rashes, a specific type of skin irritation, describe any area of skin that is red, itchy and inflamed. Both general skin irritation and rashes can be caused by a number of factors. Similarly, each can vary in severity and in duration.

For example, while mild forms of skin irritation and rashes can last for a few days, serious cases of both can persist for weeks, causing debilitating pain.

Causes of Skin Irritation and Rashes

One of the primary functions of skin, the body’s largest organ, is to protect us from the sun, pollutants and other potentially harmful substances. Because it is constantly coming into contact with the elements, it is always at risk of encountering substances that will irritate it. Common causes of skin irritation include:

  • chemicals
  • detergents
  • dyes
  • extended duration in extremely hot or extremely cold weather
  • frequent washing
  • frequent contact with water
  • perfumes
  • pet dander
  • plants
  • soaps
  • synthetic fabrics

In addition to the above causes, rashes specifically may also be caused by:

  • allergies
  • bacterial, fungal or parasitic infection
  • bug bites
  • hormonal fluctuations
  • medical conditions, such as eczema or Lyme disease
  • mosquito bites
  • stress

Symptoms of Skin Irritation and Rashes

Because both of these skin condition have such varied causes, the associated symptoms are also extremely diverse. healthpadinfo-skin-rashes-cureLike other medical conditions, the symptoms a person will experience when he suffers from skin irritation or rashes will depend on the exact cause of the condition. Some of the most common symptoms associated with skin irritation and rashes include:

  1. burning, tingling or stinging sensation
  2. changes in skin’s texture
  3. cracked skin
  4. dry skin
  5. flaky or scaly skin
  6. pain
  7. redness
  8. small blisters
  9. thickened skin

Diagnosing Skin Irritation and Rashes

Getting the proper diagnosis for your rash relies on identifying the precise cause of the skin irritation. Once you and your doctor are able to identify what is causing your skin irritation, the proper course of treatment will be clear.

Seeing your doctor or dermatologist immediately after you recognize rash symptoms is essential to preventing further health complications and avoiding the spread of your condition to others. While your skin rash may not be contagious, seeing a medical expert is still essential to preventing the rash from spreading over your body and getting your health back on track.

When you go to see your doctor, he will ask you the following questions:

Are any of your family members or co-workers experiencing similar symptoms?
Do you suffer from any allergies that you know about?
Do you suffer from any non-allergy-related, chronic medical conditions, such as lupus?
Have there been any noticeable changes in your home or work environment recently?
Have you been under added stress recently?
Have you come into contact with a substance that you don’t usually handle?
Have you handled any chemicals recently?
Have you noticed any bug bites on your body recently?
Have you started a new shampoo, used a new soap or tried a new perfume in the last few days?

Your answers to these questions, as well as the appearance and location of the skin irritation, will help the doctor make a proper diagnosis.

Treatments for Skin Irritation and Rashes

Although the precise treatment you need for your irritated skin will rely on the exact cause of your condition, doctor generally recommend the following:

  1. Bath, shower and wash with warm (not hot) water, so as not to shock or dry out the skin.
  2. Gently dry skin, especially the affected area. Rubbing skin roughly will only irritate it further.
  3. If you have identified the irritant (the substance that has caused the rash), stay away from it.
  4. Make sure that your showers or baths are short. Prolonged contact with water will only further irritate the skin.
  5. Moisturize the affected area multiple times each day, especially after washing, with a perfume-free, oil-free moisturizer.
  6. Use a humidifier at home to re-moisturize the skin.
  7. Use mild, perfume-free soaps.

Unhealthy Skin Leads to Skin Rashes

Healthy skin provides a barrier between the inside of the body and the outside environment. A rash means some change has affected the skin.

Rashes are generally caused by skin irritation, which can have many causes. A rash is generally a minor problem that may go away with home treatment. In some cases a rash does not go away or the skin may become so irritated that medical care is needed.

In adults and older children, rashes are often caused by contact with a substance that irritates the skin (contact dermatitiscamera). The rash usually starts within 48 hours after contact with the irritating substance. Contact dermatitis may cause mild redness of the skin or a rash of small red bumps. A more severe reaction may cause swelling, redness, and larger blisters. The location of the rash may give you a clue about the cause.

skin-irritation-fabric-healthpad.infoContact dermatitis does not always occur the first time you are in contact to the irritating substance (allergen). After you have had a reaction to the substance, a rash can occur in response to even very small amounts of the substance. Contact dermatitis is not serious, but it is often very itchy. Common causes of contact dermatitis include:

  • Poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, oak, or sumac.
  • Soaps, detergents, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, or lotions.
  • Jewelry or fabrics.
  • New tools, toys, appliances, or other objects.

Latex, Allergy to natural rubber latex affects people who are exposed to rubber products on a regular basis, especially health care workers, rubber industry workers, and people who have had multiple surgeries. Latex allergies can cause a severe reaction.

Rashes may occur with viral infections, such as herpes zoster; fungal infections, such as a yeast infection (Candida albicans); bacterial infections, such as impetigo; and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rashes may also occur as a symptom of a more serious disease, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or some types of cancer.

Rashes may also appear after exposure to an insect or a parasite, such as the scabies mite. You may develop a rash when you travel to a rural area or go hiking or camping in the woods.

A rash may be a sign of a chronic skin problem, such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, or seborrheic dermatitis. Other causes of rash include dry, cold weather; extremely hot weather (heat rash); and emotional stress. Emotions such as frustration or embarrassment may lead to an itchy rash.

Some medicines can cause a rash as a side effect. A very rare and serious type of generalized red rash called toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) may occur after using sulfa drugs. TEN can cause the skin to peel away, leaving large areas of tissue that weep or ooze fluid like a severe burn. If this type of rash occurs, you need to see a doctor. TEN may occur after the use of some medicines.

The need for medical treatment often depends on what other symptoms are present. A rash that occurs with other symptoms, such as shortness of breath or fever, may mean another problem, such as a serious allergic reaction or infection. Get proper skin tests done and consult your doctor before taking any OTC medication

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